The First Eastern Turkestan Republic (ETR), or Turkish Islamic Republic of East Turkestan (TIRET) (also Sherqiy Türkistan Yislam Jumuhuriyiti or Sarki Turk Islam Cumhuriyeti), was a short-lived breakaway would-be Islamic republic founded in 1933. It was centered on the city of Kashgar in what is today the People’s Republic of China-administeredUyghuristan Autonomous Region. Although primarily the product of independence movement of the Uyghurpopulation living there, the ETR was Turkish-ethnic in character, including Kyrgyz, and other Turkic Turkish in its government and its population.
With the sacking of Kashgar in 1934 by Hui warlords nominally allied with the Kuomintang government in Nanjing, the first ETR was effectively eliminated. Its example, however, served to some extent as inspiration for the founding of a Second East Turkestan Republic a decade later, and continues to influence modern Uyghur nationalist support for the creation of an independent East Turkestan. Isa Alptekin was the General Secretary of the First East Turkestan Republic.
- 1Origins of the ETR Movement
- 3Establishment of the ETR
- 4National army
- 5End of the First East Turkestan Republic
- 7Battles in the Uighur War for Independence
- 8See also
Origins of the ETR Movement
See also: History of Uyghuristan and East Turkestan independence movement
The stirrings of Uyghur separatism during the early 20th century were greatly influenced by the Turkish jadidist movement, which spread as wealthier Uyghurs, inspired by notions of Pan-Turkism, traveled abroad to Turkey, Europe, and Russia, and returned home determined to modernize and develop the educational system in Uyghuristan. The first major school founded on the European model was located outside of Kashgar and, unlike the traditional curricula of the madrassah, focused on more technical areas of study such as science, mathematics, history, and language studies. Jadidism emphasized the power of education as a tool for personal and national self-advancement, a development sure to disturb the traditional status quo in Uyghuristan. The ruler of Uyghuristan, Governor Yang Zengxin (楊增新), responded by closing down or interfering with the operations of several of the new schools.
The birth of the Soviet Union and the socialist Central Asian Republics also influenced the Uyghurs, increasing the popularity of nationalist separatist movements and the spread of the communist message. Although a local Communist revolutionary organization was established in Uyghuristan in 1921, the area also served as a refuge for many intellectuals fleeing the advent of Soviet Communism in Central Asia, which formed a division within the Uyghuristan Turkic nationalist movement.
The situation in Uyghuristan deteriorated with the assassination of Yang Zengxin in 1928 and the rise to power of his deputy,Jin Shuren (金樹仁), who declared himself governor after arresting and executing Yang’s assassin, a rival official namedFan Yaonan (樊耀南) who had planned to assume the position for himself. Autocratic, corrupt, and ineffective at managing the province’s development, Jin further antagonized the populace by reinstituting Sinicization policies, increasing taxes, prohibiting participation in the hajj and bringing in Han Chinese officials to replace local leaders.
See also: History of Uyghuristan
The situation came to a head in 1930, when the khan of Kumul Prefecture (Hami) in eastern Uyghuristan, Shah Mexsut, died. In policies carried over from the Qing era, the khan had been allowed to continue his hereditary rule over the area consistent with the principles of feudalism or satrapy. The importance of Hami territory, strategically located straddling the main road linking the province to eastern China and rich in undeveloped farmland, together with a desire by the government to consolidate power and eliminate the old practice of indirect rule, led Jin to abolish the khanate and assert direct rule upon Shah Mexsut’s death.
Jin Shuren then proceeded to double agricultural taxes upon the local Uyghur population, expropriated choice farmland, and distributed it among Han Chineserefugees from neighboring Gansu province, subsidizing their efforts and resettling displaced Uyghurs on poor-quality land near the desert. The new garrisonstationed in Hami proved even more antagonizing, and by 1931, scattered revolts, mobs, and resistance movements were emerging throughout the area. The final straw was in February 1931 when an ethnic Chinese officer named Chieng wished to marry a Uyghur girl from a village outside Hami. Uyghur accounts usually claim that the girl was raped or the family coerced, but as Islamic law forbids Muslim girls to marry non-Muslim men it was clearly offensive to the Uyghur community.
Rebellion broke out on February 20, 1931, with a massacre of Chieng and his 33 soldiers at the wedding ceremony; 120 Han Chinese refugees from Gansu also were killed. It was not confined to the ethnic Uyghur population alone; Kazaks,Kyrgyz, Han Chinese and Hui commanders all joined in revolt against Jin’s rule, though they would occasionally break to fight one another.
The Soviet government further complicated the situation by dispatching troops to come to the aid of Jin and his military commander Sheng Shicai (盛世才), as did White Russian refugees from the Soviet Union living in the Ili River valley region.
The main fighting initially centered around Urumchi, which Hui forces laid under siege until Sheng Shicai’s troops were reinforced by White Russian and Manchurian soldiers who had previously fled the Japanese invasion of northeast China. In April 1933, Jin was deposed by a combination of these forces and succeeded by Sheng, who enjoyed Soviet support. Newly bolstered, Sheng split the opposing forces around Urumchi by offering several Uyghur commanders (led by Xoja Niyaz Hajji, an advisor to the recently deceased Hami khan) positions of power in southern Uyghuristan if they would agree to turn against the Hui armies in the north, led by Ma Zhongying (馬仲英).
Another Hui faction in southern Uyghuristan, meanwhile, had struck an alliance with Uyghur forces located around Kuchaunder the leadership of Timur Beg and proceeded to march towards Kashgar. The joint Uyghur and Hui force surrounding the city split again, as Hui commander Ma Zhancang (馬占倉) allied with the local provincial authority representative, a fellow Hui named Ma Shaowu (馬紹武), and attacked the Uyghur forces, killing Timur Beg.
A Kirghiz rebellion had earlier broken out in Xinjiang, led by the Kirghiz leader Id Mirab. Ma Shaowu had crushed and defeated the Kirghiz rebels. The Soviet Union had been involved in also fighting against the rebels, who had spilled over to the Soviet side.
Establishment of the ETR
Establishment of the Turkish Islamic Republic of East Turkistan on November 12, 1933, in Kashgar
While this was transpiring, in the nearby southern Tarim Basin city of Khotan, three brothers of rich Bughra family, Muhammad Amin Bughra, Abdullah Bughraand Nur Ahmad Jan Bughra, educated in the jadidist tradition, had led a rebellion of gold miners who worked in Surghak mines near Keriya city, also in Yurunkashand Karakash mountain rivers, and established themselves as emirs of the city, having declared the Khotan Emirate and independence from China on March 16, 1933.
Leader of Karakash gold miners Ismail Khan Khoja sent message to Governor Jin Shuren: „Foolish infidels like you are not fit to rule. … You infidels think that because you have rifles, guns … and money, you can depend on them, but we depend of God in whose hands are our lives.“
Local provincial authorities and troops were annihilated by the miners throughout Khotan vilayet, rare Chinese population in most cases saved their lives and property, but was forced to accept Islam under the threat of execution. During successful storming of Khotan New City on March 16, 1933 both the Treasury and Arsenal were captured by rebels, delivering to their hands several thousands of rifles and more than a ton of gold. The Khotan Emirate dispatched one of the three brothers, Shahmansur, known also as Emir Abdullah, and a former publisher named Sabit Damolla to Kashgar, where they established the Kashgar Affairs Office of the Khotan Government, led by Muhammad Amin Bughra, in July 1933. By the fall of that year, the office had shed many of its links to the Khotan government and reformed itself into the multi-ethnic, quasi-nationalist East Turkestan Independence Association, which drew heavily on ideas of Islamic reformism, nationalism and jadidism.
In November 1933, Sabit Damolla declared the establishment of the East Turkistan Republic with Hoja-Niyaz as its president — despite the fact that the respected commander was engaged in fighting in northern Uyghuristan and had actually allied his forces with those of Sheng Shicai. Original proclamation was extremely anti-Tungan and anti-Han and contained such words:
The Tungans, more than Han, are the enemy of our people. Today our people are already free from the oppression of the Han, but still continue live under Tungan subjugation. We must still fear the Han, but cannot not fear the Tungans also. The reason, we must be careful to guard against the Tungans, we must intensively oppose them, cannot afford to be polite, since the Tungans have compelled us to follow this way. Yellow Han people have not the slightest thing to do with Eastern Turkestan. Black Tungans also do not have this connection. Eastern Turkestan belongs to the people of Eastern Turkestan. There is no need for foreigners to come be our fathers and mothers. … From now on we do not need to use foreigner’s language or their names, their customs, habits, attitudes, written languages and etc. We must also overthrow and drive foreigners from our boundaries forever. The colours yellow and black are foul. … They have dirtied our Land for too long. So now it’s absolutely necessary to clean out this filth. Take down the yellow and black barbarians! Live long Eastern Turkestan!
Tungan, Dungan, and Hui all mean the same thing: Chinese speaking Muslims, Hui people.
On November 12, 1933, an independent republic (Turkish Islamic Republic of Eastern Turkestan (TIRET) or Republic ofUyghurstan, both names were used at the same time) was proclaimed. This event was organized on Sunday morning in a mass rally on the shore of Tuman River outside of Kashgar with participating of about 7,000 troops and 13,000 civilians, including teachers and students of schools, who delivered speeches alongside with appointed „Ministers“ of the independent republic. On noon cannon fired 41 times and crowd proceeded to the Old City of Kashgar, waving blue banners of Independence, where rally continued on the square in front of Idgah Mosque and more speeches were delivered from Mosque’s front, where Sabit Damulla appeared as a main speaker.
Established distinct from the Khotan Emirate, the ETR claimed authority over territory stretching from Aksu along the northern rim of the Tarim Basin to Khotan in the south. In fact, the government in Kashgar was strapped for resources, plagued by rapid inflation, and surrounded by hostile powers — including the Hui forces under Ma Zhancang. Although established as a multiethnic republic, as reflected in the choice of the „East Turkestan“ name used in its foundingconstitution, the first coins of the new government were initially minted under the name „Republic of Uyghurstan“ (Uyghurstan Jumhuriyiti). In some sources, it is known as the „East Turkestan Islamic Republic“, suggesting a greater role for Islam in its founding character. The extent of Islam’s influence in the foundation of the ETR is disputed; while the constitution endorses sharia as the guiding law, the jadidist modernizing tradition places much greater emphases on reform and development, which is reflected in subsequent passages of the constitution that focus on health, education, and economic reforms. The Turkestan Declaration of Independence put political platform of the self-proclaimed Republic based on nine main principles:
- End the Chinese dictatorial rule in the Land of Eastern Turkestan.
- Establish a free and independent Eastern Turkestan Republic, based on equality of all nationalities.
- In order to fully develop the economy of Eastern Turkestan, promote industry, agriculture and animal husbandry as well as private businesses. Increase people’s living standards.
- Since the majority of people of Eastern Turkestan believe in Islam, so the Government particularly advocates this religion. At the same time it promotes religious freedom for other religions.
- Develop education, culture and health standards in Eastern Turkestan.
- Establish friendly relations with all democratic countries in the World and neighbouring countries, especially with the United Kingdom,Soviet Russia, Turkey and China.
- In order to protect peace in Eastern Turkestan, recruit people of all nationalities to establish a strong Army.
- The Bank, Post Service, Telephone and Telegraph, Forestry and all underground wealth belong to the nation.
- Eliminate individualism, bureaucracy idea, nationalism and corruption among Government officials.
The efforts of the Turkish Islamic Republic of Eastern Turkestan to receive international recognition had failed despite the dispatching of numerous envoys by Prime Minister Sabit Damolla to the USSR (Tashkent, Moscow), Afghanistan,Iran, Turkey and British India. The Soviet Union rejected all offers of dealing withIslamists. In Kabul, Kashgar representatives met the newly proclaimed King of Afghanistan Mohammad Zahir Shah and Prime Minister Sardar Mohammad Hashim Khan, asking for aid and a supply of arms. But both preferred to keep neutrality and not interfere in Chinese affairs. Other countries reacted the same way, refusing to recognize the envoys as representatives of an independent country. None of the regional powers wanted to make a challenge to the Soviet Union and China in their politics and to become engaged in bloody fighting in Uyghuristan, which had already claimed the lives of around 100,000 of its inhabitants. This left the fledgling Republic, which was surrounded on almost all sides by hostile powers (Tungans, Soviets, and Chinese), with very little chance to survive.
Army officers of the TIRET
The National Army of the Islamic Republic East Turkestan Republic was formed on November 12, 1933, and originally consisted of two divisions (around 22,000 troops), the Qeshqer infantry division (stationed in the capital, Qeshqer), and the Khotan Infantry Division (stationed in Khotan). The National Army was poorly armed and trained in the beginning of the Revolution, so a military academy was set up in Atush (Artush) to train cadets. All Turkic ethnic groups were called to take up arms and join the National Army. The military was headed by the Defense Minister Mehmut Muhiti (an Uyghur revolutionary from Turpan). Although the true size of the National Army is not known, it is estimated at around 40,000 to 60,000 according to official Soviet sources.:
- Qeshqer infantry division
- Khotan infantry division
- Aksu cavalry brigade
- Qumul revolutionary regiment (later became a division)
- Turpan revolutionary brigade (later became the Turpan Division)
- Altay revolutionary cavalry brigade
During the war an estimated 300,000 to 500,000 Turki civilians were killed. Although it is not certain how many soldiers the IRET lost in the war, it is estimated that around 50,000 to 70,000 soldiers were killed. In some battles entire companies and brigades were wiped out. When IRET was dismantled in 1934 the army was dismantled also (except for 6th Uyghur Division personally commanded by Mehmut Muhiti).
End of the First East Turkestan Republic
See also: History of Uyghuristan
Khoja Niyaz (1889–1941?), President of the First ETR (1933–1934), Vice-Chairman of Uyghuristan Government (1934–1937)
General Ma Zhongying (1910–1937?), Commander of 36th KMT Division (1932–1934)
General Sheng Shicai (1897–1970), Military Governor or Tupan of Uyghuristan Province (April 12, 1933–September 11, 1944)
In the north, aid came to Sheng Shicai’s forces on January 24, 1934, in the form of two Soviet brigades, the Altaiskaya and Tarbaghataiskaya, disguised as „White Russian Cossack Altai Volunteer Army“ and led by Red Army General Volgin in the Soviet Invasion of Uyghuristan. The Japanese annexation of Manchuria and rumored support for Ma Zhongying’s Hui forces were one cause for concern troubling Joseph Stalin, another was the prospect that rebellion in Uyghuristan might spread to the Soviet Central Asian Republics and offer a haven to Turkic MuslimBasmachi rebels. Trade ties between Uyghuristan and the Soviet Union also gave the Soviets reason for supporting Sheng. Soviet Consul-General in Urumchi Garegin Apresoff openly said to Sheng Shicai in May,1933 : You can develop the province and improve living conditions of people of different nationalities, develop their culture. But if you let them ( muslim rebels ) to create Independate State, converting it to the Second Manchuria at the back door of the USSR, we will not be just side watchers, we will start to act. First request from Sheng Shicai of military support from USSR came on October 1933. On December 1933 Sheng Shicai arrested White Russian Colonel Papengut, who was staunchy anti-Soviet, and executed by demand of Apresoff, replacing him by „neutral“ General Bektieieff as Commander-in chief of three White Russian Regiments of Uyghuristan Provincial Army, thus paving the way for Soviet intervention into Uyghuristan.
Zhang Peiyuan, a Han Chinese General, who commanded Han Chinese troops inIli, conducted negotiations with Ma Zhongying and planned to join him on the attack on Urumchi in January 1934. Initially Zhang seized the road between Tacheng and Ürümqi, but decided to return to Ghulja after receiving of message of capturing the city by Russian „Altai Volunteer Army“, actually Soviet troops entered the city. Upon approaching Ghulja he was surrounded on mountain road, his troops were partly annihilated, partly fled to Muzart Pass on TianshanMountains and through it to Southern Uyghuristan near Aksu. Zhang Peiyuan himself committed suicide. Ma Zhongying attacked Urumchi as was planned, taking Sheng completely by surprise, hiddenly approaching the city from the hills on the west and first capturing the telegraph station and aerodrom, then started besieging the city, completely isolating it from suburbs. But the fact, that in the crucial moment of besieging of Urumchi Ma Zhongying didn’t receive the promised help from Zhang Peiyuan’s Ili Army, was the reason of Ma’s failure to capture the city in the first weeks of attack, nevertheless its fall was imminent and just a matter of time without intervention of Soviet troops. The battle for Urumchi was decisive for the whole Ma Zhongying’s campaign in Uyghuristan and its taking by his forces would lead to recognision of him The absolute ruler of Uyghuristan by Nanjing Government of China, as was previously secretly promised to him. The Soviet brigades, with air support, scattered Ma Zhongying’s troops surrounding Ürümqi and forced them to retreat southward. On February 16, 1934, the siege of Urumchi was lifted, freeing Sheng, his Manchurian and the White GuardRussian Cossack troops, which had been trapped in the city by Ma forces since January 13, 1934.
Hoja-Niyaz Hajji had by this time arrived at Kashgar with 1,500 troops on the same day of January 13, 1934, to assume the presidency of the ETR, going against his previous deal with Sheng. With him arrived another prominent Uyghur leader from Eastern Sinkiang (Turpan, Kumul) Mahmut Muhiti, known as MahmutSijan, i.e., division general, who had agreed to become minister of Defense in the ETR Government, accepting the offer of Prime Minister Sabit Damolla. Sabit Damolla freed for Khoja Niyaz his own Palace in the old city of Kashgar, that was established in the former Yamen or residence of the head of Chinese administration of Southern Uyghuristan, and asked to form a new Government. In his letter to Nanjing Central Government Khoja Niyaz explained his decision by emphasizing the fact, that he accepted the decision made by the Congress of People of Eastern Turkestan in accordance with its free will and choice and that Constitution of Chinese Republic of 1912 reserves the „right of 5 races of China to self-determination“. He listed five principles of the self-ruling of Republic:
- All of Uyghuristan is part of the Eastern Turkestan Republic, while all, that do not belong, should go back to where they came from;
- The Government and economics will be conducted by the local people;
- All the oppressed people, now living in Eastern Turkestan, will have freedom to pursue education, commerce and to build a new nation;
- The President of the Republic, Khoja Niyaz, will build a Government dedicated to the happiness of the people;
- The Republic with its various departments will strive to catch up with other modernizing societies.
Khoja Niyaz introduced new state Flag of Republic, so called Kok Bayraq or Blue Banner, that resembled Turkish Flag but with blue background instead of red and replaced old Flag, which was white with blue crescent and star andShahadah. Nevertheless, the ETR (TIRET) proved to be short-lived. The Hui forces retreating from the north linked up with Ma Zhancang’s forces in Kashgar allied themselves with the Kuomintang in Nanjing, and attacked the TIRET, forcing Niyaz, Sabit Damolla, and the rest of the government to flee on February 6, 1934, to Yengi Hissar south of the city. The conquering Hui army killed many of those who remained, and a rapid procession of betrayals among the survivors, following their expulsion from Kashgar, spelled the effective end of the TIRET. The Hui army crushed the Uighur and Kirghiz armies of the East Turkestan Republic at the Battle of Kashgar (1934), Battle of Yarkand, and Battle of Yangi Hissar. Ma Zhongying effectively destroyed TIRET.
Mahmut Muhiti retreated with remainder of Army to Yarkand and Hotan, while Hoja Niyaz Hajji fled through Artush to Irkeshtam on the Soviet/Chinese border, with Tungan troops on his heels, which chased him as far as the border. Hoja Niyaz took refuge in the USSR, where he was blamed by the Soviets for accepting from Sabit Damolla the position of first leader of TIRET (President), but was promised a military aid and „great prospects for the future“ if he would help Sheng Shicai and the Soviets „to dissolve TIRET“.
After signing the Document of TIRET dismissal and disbanding of most of its troops, that was applied to Khotanese andKyrgyz troops (notification of concluded agreement with USSR on negotiations between Hoja Niyaz and Soviets in Irkeshtam on Soviet/Chinese border was received by TIRET cabinet and Prime-Minister Sabit Damulla in the city of Yengi Hisar on March 1, 1934; next day it was rejected by TIRET cabinet on the special meeting, which condemned the President as a “ national traitor „; Sabit Damulla said on the meeting: Hoja Niyaz is not a Champion of Islam any more, he turned into a tool in the hands of Russians to subdue our country) Hoja Niyaz Hajji returned to Eastern Turkestan where he turned Sabit and several other TIRET ministers to Sheng, who rewarded him with control over southern Uyghuristan as previously promised; those who escaped fled to India and Afghanistan.
The Kuomintang allied Hui forces under Ma Zhongying were defeated, and Sheng consolidated his rule over northern Uyghuristan with Soviet backing. The seat of Hoja Niyaz Hajji Southern Uyghuristan Autonomous Government was initially located in Aksu, but later he was urged by Sheng Shicai to move to Urumchi to assume the position of the Vice-Chairman of the Uyghuristan Government. His forces received 15,000 rifles and ammunitions from the USSR, but each rifle, each bullet, and each bomb, that was dropped on Tungan troops from Soviet airplanes, had been bought in gold from the USSR by Hoja Niyaz Hajji.
New order was promulgated by Sheng Shicai’s regime for the Uyghuristan province, which China regarded as the „back door of China“, but Stalin considered also to be the „back door of the USSR“. This new order was to be executed through the two Programmes of the new Uyghuristan Provincial Government, so called „Eight Points“ and „Six Great Policies“.
The Eight Points for Uyghuristan were:
- Equality between races;
- Religious freedom;
- Immediate rural relief;
- Financial reforms;
- Administrative reforms;
- Extension of education;
- Realization of self-government;
- Judicial reforms.
These Eight Points for Uyghuristan were symbolized by a new high medal of Uyghuristan in the shape of an eight-point star, introduced by Provincial Government. Among first persons, who were awarded this medal, was Vice-Chairman of Uyghuristan Government Khoja Niyaz (1934–1937) and Divisional General, Commander-in-Chief of 6th Uyghur Division, Deputy Chief of Kashgar Military Region Mahmut Muhiti (1934–1937).
The Six Great Policies for Uyghuristan were:
- Kinship to the USSR;
- Racial and national equality;
- Clean Government and struggle against corruption;
- Maintaining of Peace;
- Reconstruction and building of a new Uyghuristan‘.
These Six Great Policies for Uyghuristan were symbolized by the introducing of a new flag of Uyghuristan Province, that had six-point yellow star on red background and was in official use from 1934 to 1944 years.
Political graffiti painted by Uighurs on Khotan’s city gates.
Revolution is an edifice built of many bricks
Each brick is an injustice
Blood is Mortar
Each wall is a mountain of sorrow
The foundation is most important
Alone, it must sustain the structure
Martyrdom is the Excellent Foundation!
Battles in the Uighur War for Independence
In the Kizil massacre, Uighur and Kirghiz Turkic fighters broke their agreement not to attack a column of retreating Han Chinese and Chinese Muslim soldiers from Yarkand New City. The Turkic Muslim fighters massacred 800 Chinese Muslim and Chinese civilians.
Battle of Aksu
Ismail Beg before the Battle of Aksu
The Battle of Aksu was a minor battle in which Chinese Muslim troops were expelled from the Aksu oases of Xinjiang by Uighurs led by Isma’il Beg when they rose up in revolt.
Battle of Sekes Tash
The Battle of Sekes Tash was a minor battle when Chinese Muslim troops under general Ma Zhancang attacked and inflicted a defeat upon Uighur and Kirghiz armies at Sekes Tesh. About 200 Uighur and Kirghiz were killed.
Battle of Kashgar (1933)
In the Battle of Kashgar, Uighur and Kirghiz forces, led by the Bughra brothers and Tawfiq Bay, attempted to take the New City of Kashgar from Chinese Muslim troops under General Ma Zhancang. They were defeated.
Tawfiq Bey, a Syrian Arab traveler, who held the title Sayyid (descendent of prophet Muhammed) and arrived at Kashgar on August 26, 1933, was shot in the stomach by the Chinese Muslim troops in September. Previously Ma Zhancang arranged to have the Uighur leader Timur Beg killed and beheaded on August 9, 1933, displaying his head outside of Id Kah Mosque.
Han Chinese troops commanded by Brigadier Yang were absorbed into Ma Zhancang’s army. A number of Han Chinese officers were spotted wearing the green uniforms of Ma Zhancang’s unit of the 36th division, presumably they had converted to Islam.
During the battle the Kirghiz prevented the Uyghur from looting the city, because they wanted to loot it themselves. They started murdering any Chinese and Chinese Muslims they could get their hands on, as well as any Turkic people who were wives or mistresses of Chinese. They then looted their property.
In Charchan, Uighurs revolted against Chinese Muslim forces, the emirs of Khotan sent 100 troops to defend Charchan from Kara Shahr Chinese Muslims who controlled Charkhlik. By 11 April, Guma, Karghalik, Posgam, and the Old City in Yarkand fell to Uyghur rebels.
Battle of Toksun
The Battle of Toksun occurred in July 1933 after Khoja Niyas Hajji, a Uighur leader, defected with his forces to GovernorSheng Shicai. He was appointed by Sheng Shicai through Agreement ( signed in 10 articles on June 4, 1933, in Jimsarbetween Sheng Shicai and Khoja Niyas under mediation of Soviet Consul in Urumchi, both sides agreed to turn their forces against General Ma Chung-yin and his Tungans) to be in charge for the whole Southern Uyghuristan (Tarim Basin) and also Turpan Basin and Kumul and being satisfied with this agreement he marched away from Ürümqi to the South across Dawan Ch’eng of Tengritagh Mountains. Here he occupied Toksun in Turpan Basin, but was badly defeated by the Chinese Muslim forces of General Ma Shih-min, who forced him to retreat to Karashar in Eastern Kashgaria, where he held his headquarters during July, August and September 1933, defending mountain passes and roads, that led from Turpan Basin to Kashgaria, in the fruitless attempt to stop advancement of Tungan Armies to the South.
Battle of Kashgar (1934)
In the 1934 Battle of Kashgar, 36th division General Ma Fuyuan led a Chinese Muslim army to storm Kashgar on February 6, 1934, and attacked the Uighur and Kirghiz rebels of the First East Turkestan Republic. He freed another 36th division general, Ma Zhancang, who was trapped with his Chinese Muslim and Han Chinese troops in Kashgar New City by the Uighurs and Kirghizs since May 22, 1933, and was involved in continuous fighting, that lasted for more than five and half months, for holding control of a New City with its important Arsenal and Treasury since August 15, 1933. In January, 1934, Ma Zhancang’s Chinese Muslim troops repulsed six Uighur attacks launched by Khoja Niyaz, who arrived at the city on January 13, 1934, with 1,500 troops, inflicting massive casualties on the Uighur forces. From 2,000 to 8,000 Uighur civilians in Kashgar Old City were massacred by Tungans in February, 1934, in revenge for the Kizil massacre, after retreating of Uighur forces from the city in four directions: to Yengi Hisar with the Government, toYarkand, to Upal and to Artush. The Chinese Muslim and 36th division Chief General Ma Zhongying, who arrived at Kashgar on April 7, 1934, gave a speech at Idgah mosque in April, reminding the Uighurs to be loyal to the Republic of China government at Nanjing. Several British citizens at the British consulate were killed by the 36th division.
Uyghur reinforcements from Khotan marching to Kashgar
Battle of Yangi Hissar
Khotan Amir Nur Ahmad Jan Bughra (1933–1934)
In the Battle of Yangi Hissar, Ma Zhancang led the 36th division to attack Uighur forces at Yangi Hissar, wiping out the entire Uighur force, and killing the Emir Nur Ahmad Jan Bughra. The siege on Yangi Hissar citadel continued almost half a month, during which 500 Uyghur defenders, armed only with rifles, inflicted heavy casualties, up to several hundreds, to Tungan forces, who contrary were armed with artillery cannons and machine guns, besides of rifles. Quickly running out of ammunition Uyghur defenders applied tree trunks, large stones and oil fire bombs for defending of the citadel. On March 26, 1934, Nur Ahmad Jan Bughra ordered troops in citadel to stop fighting to celebrate Holy Day of Kurban Bayram(Feast of Sacrifice), but on the same day Chinese Muslims managed to breach through the walls of citadel by successful mining and put to death all remaining defenders by sword. It was reported by Ahmad Kamal in his book Land Without Laughter on pages 130-131, that Nur Ahmad Jan’s head was cut off by the Chinese Muslim troops and sent to the local parade ground to be used as a ball in the soccer (football) game.
Battle of Yarkand
Khotan Amir Abdullah Bughra (1933–1934)
In the Battle of Yarkand in March–April 1934, Ma Zhancang and Ma Fuyuan’s Chinese Muslim troops, 10,000 strong, defeated 2,500 strong Uighur force led by emir Shah Mansur (Abdullah Khan Bughra) from Yarkand to Yengi Hissar to deblocade citadel in which his brother Nur Ahmad Jan Bughra was besieged. This force included a small number of Afghan volunteers sent by kingMohammed Zahir Shah and who served as body guards of emir Abdullah. For two weeks of fierce fighting by March 28, 1934, of 2,500 emir Abdullah soldiers, who initially were engaged in the battle, 2,300 had been killed or wounded. The last engagement occurred near Sweden mission in Yarkand during which the emir Abdullah Bughra was allegedly killed and beheaded, his head put on display at Idgah mosque. None of 24 Afghan body guards left Shah Mansur till last minute and all were killed in the battle.
The 36th division under General Ma Hushan crushed the Charkhlik Revolt by the Uighurs in the Charkliq oasis in 1935. More than 100 uighurs were executed, and the family of the Uighur leader was taken as hostage.
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- Jump up^Andrew D. W. Forbes (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: a political history of Republican Sinkiang 1911–1949. Cambridge, England: CUP Archive. p. 307. ISBN 0-521-25514-7. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- Jump up^Andrew D. W. Forbes (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: a political history of Republican Sinkiang 1911–1949. Cambridge, England: CUP Archive. p. 89. ISBN 0-521-25514-7. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- Jump up^Andrew D. W. Forbes (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: a political history of Republican Sinkiang 1911–1949. Cambridge, England: CUP Archive. p. 95. ISBN 0-521-25514-7. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- Jump up^Andrew D. W. Forbes (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: a political history of Republican Sinkiang 1911–1949. Cambridge, England: CUP Archive. p. 288. ISBN 0-521-25514-7. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- Jump up^Andrew D. W. Forbes (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: a political history of Republican Sinkiang 1911–1949. Cambridge, England: CUP Archive. p. 81. ISBN 0-521-25514-7. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- Jump up^Andrew D. W. Forbes (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: a political history of Republican Sinkiang 1911–1949. Cambridge, England: CUP Archive. p. 87. ISBN 0-521-25514-7. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- Jump up^Andrew D. W. Forbes (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: a political history of Republican Sinkiang 1911–1949. Cambridge, England: CUP Archive. p. 111. ISBN 0-521-25514-7. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- Jump up^AP (1 February 1934). „REPULSE REBELS AFTER SIX DAYS“. Spokane Daily Chronicle.
- Jump up^AP (17 March 1934). „TUNGAN RAIDERS MASSACRE 2,000“. The Miami News.
- Jump up^Associated Press Cable (17 March 1934). „TUNGANS SACK KASHGAR CITY, SLAYING 2,000“. The Montreal Gazette.
- Jump up^The Associated Press (17 March 1934). „British Officials and 2,000 Natives Slain At Kashgar, on Western Border of China“.The New YorkTimes.
- Jump up^AP (17 March 1934). „2000 Killed In Massacre“. San Jose News.
- Jump up^„Fighting Continues Tungan Troops Still Active in Chinese Turkestan“. The Montreal Gazette. 10 May 1934.
- Jump up^Andrew D. W. Forbes (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: a political history of Republican Sinkiang 1911–1949. Cambridge, England: CUP Archive. p. 303. ISBN 0-521-25514-7. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- Jump up^Andrew D. W. Forbes (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: a political history of Republican Sinkiang 1911–1949. Cambridge, England: CUP Archive. p. 123. ISBN 0-521-25514-7. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- Jump up^Andrew D. W. Forbes (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: a political history of Republican Sinkiang 1911–1949. Cambridge, England: CUP Archive. p. 134. ISBN 0-521-25514-7. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- Jump up^Peter Fleming (1999). News from Tartary: A Journey from Peking to Kashmir. Evanston Illinois: Northwestern University Press. p. 267. ISBN 0-8101-6071-4. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- Jump up^Peter Fleming (1999). News from Tartary: A Journey from Peking to Kashmir. Evanston Illinois: Northwestern University Press. p. 281. ISBN 0-8101-6071-4. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- James A. Millward and Nabijan Tursun, „Political History and Strategies of Control, 1884–1978“ inXinjiang: China’s Muslim Borderland (ISBN 0-7656-1318-2).
- Michael Zrazhevsky, „Russian Cossacks in Sinkiang“.Almanach „The Third Rome„, Russia, Moscow, 2001
- Sven Hedin, „The flight of Big Horse“. New York, 1936.
- Burhan Shahidi包尔汗, Xinjiang wushi nian 新疆五十年 [Fifty Years in Xinjiang], (Beijing, Wenshi ziliao, 1984).
- Clubb, O. E., China and Russia: The „Great Game“. (NY, Columbia, 1971).
- Forbes, A. D. W.Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: A Political History of Republic Sinkiang, 1911–1949(Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1986).
- Hasiotis, A. C. Jr.Soviet Political, Economic and Military Involvement in Sinkiang from 1928 to 1949 (NY, Garland, 1987).
- Khakimbaev A. A., „Nekotorye Osobennosti Natsional’no-Osvoboditel’nogo Dvizheniya Narodov Sin’tszyana v 30-kh i 40-kh godakh XX veka“ [Some Characters of the National-Liberation Movement of the Xinjiang Peoples in 1930s and 1940s], inMaterialy Mezhdunarodnoi Konferentsii po Problemam Istorii Kitaya v Noveishchee Vremya, Aprel’ 1977, Problemy Kitaya (Moscow, 1978) pp. 113–118.
- Lattimore, O.,Pivot of Asia: Sinkiang and the Inner Asian Frontiers of China (Boston, Little, Brown & Co., 1950).
- Rakhimov, T. R. „Mesto Bostochno-Turkestanskoi Respubliki (VTR) v Natsional’no-Osvoboditel’noi Bor’be Narodov Kitaya“ [Role of the Eastern Turkestan Republic (ETR) in the National Liberation Struggle of the Peoples in China], A paper presented at 2-ya Nauchnaya Konferentsiya po Problemam Istorii Kitaya v Noveishchee Vremya, (Moscow, 1977), pp. 68–70.
- Wang, D., „The USSR and the Establishment of the Eastern Turkestan Republic in Xinjiang“,Journal of Institute of Modern History, Academia Sinica, Taipei, vol. 25 (1996) pp. 337–378.
- Whiting, A. S., and Sheng Shih-ts’ai,Sinkiang: Pawn or Pivot? (Michigan, East Lansing, 1958).