De genetische geschiedenis van de Turken en de genetische structuur van Centraal-Azië


De genetische geschiedenis van de Turken en de genetische structuur van Centraal-Azië 
Auteur: İlhan Cengiz (2015), Vertaler: Burak Zengin.

In dit artikel zullen we de genetische geschiedenis van de Turken behandelen aan de hand van de Y-DNA-haplogroepen die algemeen voorkomend zijn onder de Turkse volkeren van Centraal-Azië. De veelvoorkomende Y-DNA-haplogroepen onder de Turkse volkeren komen rond 46.000–65.000 v.Chr. samen bij gemeenschappelijke voorouders. In dit verband is te zien dat de Turken in duizenden jaren tijd zijn opgesplitst in verschillende haplogroepen en dat ze cultureel, historisch en taalkundig een gemeenschappelijke afstamming hebben.

haplogruplarGenetisch genealogisch onderzoek laat zien dat de Turken niet tot een enkele haplogroep behoren, maar tot minstens 14 haplogroepen. Ongeveer 12 van deze haplogroepen (G, H, I, J, K, L, N, O, P, Q, R, T), waar we verderop een lijst van hebben gegeven, waren 48.000 jaar geleden nog haplogroep F. Mutaties in de Y-STR-waarden van mannen die van haplogroep F afstamden, hebben in duizenden jaren tot het ontstaan van nieuwe haplogroepen geleid. Haplogroep F is 65.000 jaar geleden afgesplitst van onze gemeenschappelijke voorouder met de Mongolen. De voorouders van de hedendaagse Turken behoorden tussen 65.000 en 46.000 v.Chr. tot haplogroep F. De voorouders van de Mongolen behoorden rond dezelfde tijd tot haplogroep C. De voorvaderlijke haplogroep van de Turken (F) heeft tussen 46.000 en 20.000 v.Chr. diverse mutaties ondergaan waardoor afsplitsingen zijn ontstaan die tot nieuwe haplogroepen hebben geleid.[F] Uitgaand van onze voorouders van 48.000 jaar geleden, zou men technisch gezien kunnen zeggen dat vandaag alle tot aftakkingen van F behorende Turken afstammelingen zijn van deze haplogroep F.

Subhaplogroepen die voortgekomen zijn uit haplogroep F (met name G, H, I, J, K, L, N, O, P, Q, R, T) zijn de Y-DNA-haplogroepen die te zien zijn bij de Centraal-Aziatische Turken. Haplogroep C en diens aftakkingen, die ook te zien zijn bij sommige Turkse stammen, komen het meest voor bij de Mongolen en de Toengoezen. Deze twee haplogroepen (C en F) zijn 65.000 jaar geleden voortgekomen uit haplogroep CF.[CF] Daarnaast zijn ook sommige subtakken van de haplogroepen C, D en E, hoewel niet even wijdverspreid als haplogroep F, te zien onder de Turken en waren ze eveneens aanwezig onder de proto-Turken die de Turkse volkeren hebben gevormd.

f-haplogrubuIn Centraal-Azië, dat beschouwd wordt als het voorvaderlijke thuisland van de Turken, is het mogelijk om haplogroep F en diens afsplitsingen veelvuldig waar te nemen. Wanneer de verspreidingsrichtingen van de subgroepen in acht worden genomen, kan men zeggen dat Centraal-Azië naar alle waarschijnlijkheid het gebied was van waaruit haplogroep F zich heeft verspreid. Zodoende komen takken van haplogroep F erg weinig voor in Afrika. Dat paragroep F bovendien te zien is bij de Kazachen, de Gele Oeigoeren, de Oezbeken en in Tibet, China en de Himalaya’s, wijst er nogmaals op dat deze voorvaderlijke haplogroep vanuit Centraal-Azië is verspreid.[2, 26]

De voorouders van de Turken, de proto-Turken, bij wie we sporen terugzien van de levensstijl van de vroegste menselijke culturen, waren semi-nomadische krijgers die zich in duizenden jaren tijd hebben verspreid over een uitgestrekt gebied. Met deze migratiegolven zijn een tal van haplogroepen verspreid over de wereld. Zodoende zijn met het muteren van haplogroep F tijdens het vormingsproces van het Turkse volk en hun identiteit, diverse haplogroepen ontstaan waardoor meerdere haplogroepen (variaties van F) tegelijk naast elkaar te zien waren in de gebieden die door de Turken werden bewoond. Echter, doordat de Turken in stammenverband leefden en uiteen zijn gegaan (zoals de Kyptsjaken, Kirgiezen, Karlukken en Oğuzen), waren in iedere stam verschillende haplogroepen dominant.

orta-asya-turklerin-ilk-ata-yurdu-neresi-haritaDat vandaag takken voortgekomen uit de haplogroepen C, D en F te zien zijn bij volkeren en gebieden waar agglutinerende talen in gebruik zijn, laat zien dat het ontstaanspunt van agglutinerende talen (en daarmee ook het proto-Turks) veel verder teruggaat in de tijd. Hedendaagse haplogroepen (zoals G, J, N, Q, R) die voortgekomen zijn uit haplogroep F, vormen ook bij andere volkeren die een agglutinerende taal spreken (Kaukasische talen, Oeral-Altaïsche talen) de set van meest voorkomende haplogroepen, evenals bij sprekers van een dergelijke taal uit de antieke wereld (Soemerisch, Etruskisch, Hattisch, Elamitisch, Hurritisch). Het afsplitsen van F in nieuwe haplogroepen heeft dan ook te maken met mutaties die optraden tijdens volksverhuizingen naar andere gebieden of vlak in de periodes daarvoor. Parallel aan het uiteengaan van deze stammen en naties die agglutinerende talen spraken, zijn mettertijd ook hun talen uit elkaar gegroeid en gescheiden, echter hebben ze hun agglutinerende karakter behouden. De aanwezigheid van agglutinerende talen bij de eerste proto-Aziaten (Hattiërs, Soemeriërs, enz.), de Centraal-Aziaten en de volkeren van de Kaukasus en van het Wolga-Oeralgebied, wijst ook op deze gemeenschappelijke herkomst. Ook bij de Mongolen, Toengoezen, Koreanen, Mantsjoes en Japanners, eveneens oude volkeren die agglutinerende talen spreken, komen de haplogroepen C en D veelvuldig voor. Uitgaand van genetische voorspellingen, spraken de volkeren die agglutinerende talen spreken zo’n 65.000 jaar geleden naar alle waarschijnlijkheid een vergelijkbare taal.

Parallel aan de haplogroepen hebben de autosomale genen gedurende duizenden jaren mutaties ondergaan die verschillende genetische componenten hebben teweeggebracht die voor veranderingen in de fysieke verschijning van mensen hebben gezorgd. Wanneer autosomale componenten worden vergeleken, is te zien dat de Turkse volkeren gemeenschappelijke genen bezitten, echter zijn de gemeenschappelijke autosomale genen bij iedere Turkse gemeenschap in verschillende verhoudingen zichtbaar. En dit heeft voor een aantal veranderingen in de fysieke uiterlijkheden gezorgd. Y-DNA-haplogroepen zijn in die zin anders dan autosomale genen.

Onderstaande lijst geeft aan in welke mate de Y-DNA-haplogroepen die het Turkse volk vormen aanwezig zijn onder de Turkse volkeren:

Haplogroep C: Kazachen 36%[1], Karakalpakken 22.7%[3], Kirgiezen 8.9%[2], Chakassen 5.7%[4], Oeigoeren 4.3%[5]

Omdat haplogroep C in hoge mate voorkomt bij de Kazachen, de Mongolen en de Toengoezen, wordt het gezien als een Noordoost-Aziatisch kenmerk. Dat haplogroep C erg weinig voorkomt onder westelijke, zuidelijke en noordelijke Turken, wijst er mogelijk op dat deze haplogroep tijdens de Mongoolse invasies is verspreid onder de Turken. Echter, sommige subgroepen van haplogroep C kwamen reeds in veel vroegere tijden voor onder de proto-Turken.

Haplogroep E: Tsjoevasjen 14%[6], Kazan-Tataren 5.7%[6], Kazachen 2%[1], Oezbeken 1.5%[1]

De vooral in Afrika, het Midden-Oosten en Zuid-Griekenland geziene haplogroep E, komt ook voor bij de in het Wolga-Oeralgebied levende Turkse volkeren tot percentages van ongeveer 14%. Dit is eigenlijk een percentage van een niet te onderschatten hoogte. Hoewel men nog niet heeft kunnen bepalen welke variatie van haplogroep E te zien is bij de Turken, is aan de voorbeelden uit Wolga-Oeral duidelijk op te merken dat deze haplogroep reeds onder de proto-Turken aanwezig was.

Haplogroep F: Oezbeken, Turkmenen[26], Kazachen 4.8%[2], Gele Oeigoeren 6.2%[2]

De 45.000 jaar oude haplogroep F is de haplogroep waar de basishaplogroepen G, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T uit voortgekomen zijn. Omdat een aantal subgroepen van haplogroep F niet dermate gemuteerd zijn, wordt basishaplogroep F onder F* geclassificeerd als F1, F2, F3. Dat haplogroep F* gemiddeld rond de 5% te zien is bij de Kazachen in Centraal-Azië en de Gele Oeigoeren in Noord-China, is een opmerkelijk gegeven. Volgens de studie van Balaresque et al. (2015) is deze haplogroep ook te zien in Oezbekistan en Turkmenistan.

Bovendien laat de aanwezigheid van de vormen F1, F2, F3 van haplogroep F in vooral gebieden als India, Tibet, Nepal, China, Siberië ons zien dat de betreffende haplogroepen naar grote waarschijnlijkheid vanuit Centraal-Azië over de wereld zijn verspreid.

Haplogroep G: Kazachen 10%[1], Kazan-Tataren 7.6%[6], Oezbeken 3.9%[9]

Haplogroep G wordt in de basis als G1 en G2 in tweeën verdeeld. Terwijl bij de Kazachen (vooral bij de Arğın-stam van de Orta Jüz) G1 het meest te zien is, zijn subtakken van G2a rondom de Noordelijke Kaukasus en in zuidelijk Centraal-Azië aanwezig. G2a is in Kazachstan in hogere mate bij de Tataren en de Nogai te zien. De Europese Magyaren (Hongaren) en de Kazachstaanse Madjar-stam delen dezelfde 12 STR-waarden in de haplogroep G1. Volgens studies van Haber et al. en Di Cristofaro et al. zijn bij Turkmeense Afghanen en de Hazara’s subtak P303 van G2a aanwezig.

Haplogroep H: Oeigoeren 8%[2], Turkmenen 6%[3], Oezbeken 3.1%[9]

Haplogroep H, die vaker voorkomt in Zuid-Azië, komt in bepaalde mate ook voor bij de Centraal-Aziatische Turken. Het is opmerkelijk dat deze haplogroep, die weider verspreid is in India, vooral bij de Oeigoer-Turken voorkomt met een waarde van 8%.

Haplogroep I1: Kazan-Tataren 11.3%[6], Tuymaznsky-Tataren 8%[6], Tsjoevasjen 7%[6], Gagaoezen 4%[7]

Haplogroep I1 is in Noord-Europa het meest te zien in Zweden met 37%, in Noorwegen met 31.6%, in IJsland met 29% en in Finland met 28%. Deze haplogroep is te zien bij de noordelijke Turken, maar is ook in geringe mate aanwezig in Centraal-Azië.

Haplogroep I2: Gagaoezen 20%[7], Tsjoevasjen 4.7%[6], Kazan-Tataren 1.9%[6], Tuymaznsky-Tataren 4%[6]

Haplogroep I2, met 55.5% het hoogst in Bosnië-Herzegovina en 26% in Roemenië, is een haplogroep die overwegend in de Balkan aanwezig is. Het is een haplogroep die veel te zien is onder de Gagaoezen en Balkan-Turken. I2a is een haplogroep die in Centraal-Azië te zien is bij Kazachen en Tataren.

Haplogroep J1: Azerbeidzjaanse Turken 15.2%[8], Oezbeken 2.3%[9], Tsjoevasjen 2.3%[6], Tuymaznsky-Tataren 2%[6], Kazachen 2%[1], Gagaoezen 2%[7]

Hoewel de 30.000 jaar oude haplogroep J1 een haplogroep is die vaker te zien is in het Midden-Oosten, is het aanwezig in Centraal-Azië en bij Turkssprekende volkeren. Subtakken van J1 zijn nog onvoldoende onderzocht. J1 is verspreid over een uitgestrekt gebied en is onder de Turken met name te zien bij Oğuz-Turken, Tataren, Nogai en Turken uit de Kaukasus. Subtakken van J1 die te zien zijn bij de Turken en Kaukasiërs verschillen over het algemeen van de subtakken van J1 die bij Semitische volkeren te zien zijn.

Haplogroep J2: Oeigoeren 34%[2], Oezbeken 30.4%[2, Oost-Turkestan], Azerbeidzjaanse Turken 30.6%[20], Karaïm 30%[19],  Hazara’s 26.6%[22], Koemukken 25%[21], Balkaren 24%[10], Lipka-Tataren 18.9%[23], Turkmenen 17%[11], Oezbeken 16%[9], Kazan-Tataren 15.1%[6], Tsjoevasjen 14%[6], Nogai 10.4%[21], Kazachen 7%[1]

Haplogroep J2 is ongeveer 30.000 jaar geleden in Azië verschenen. Waar precies berust echter nog op gissingen. Het is in verschillende hoeveelheden waar te nemen in een uitgestrekt gebied van Centraal-Azië tot Europa, over het algemeen waarneembaar in de Kaukasus, West-Azië, Centraal-Azië, Zuid-Azië, Oost-Europa, Europa in het algemeen, de Balkan en zelfs Amerika. J2 wordt in de basis als J2a en J2b in twee takken verdeeld. Turken behoren overwegend tot J2a, maar J2b is eveneens onder hen te vinden. J2 is vooral te zien bij de Oeigoeren in Oost-Turkestan met 34%, maar is ook in belangrijke mate aanwezig bij Azerbeidzjaanse Turken, Turken uit Turkije, Karatsjaj-Balkaarse Turken, Turkmenen, Oezbeken, Tataren en Hazara’s. Tegelijkertijd komen we J2b tegen bij Tataren in het Wolga-Oeralgebied en bij Oezbeken. Subtakken van J2, die in een uitgestrekt gebied in meer of mindere mate te zien is bij haast ieder Turks volk, zijn waar te nemen onder de Turkse volkeren. J2 is bij Oğuz-Turken en Oeigoeren de haplogroep die het meest voorkomt. In twee uit de ijzertijd stammende koergans ten noorden van de Altaj zijn voorbeelden van J2 gevonden. Men denkt dat J2a ten oosten van de Kaspische Zee is verschenen.

Haplogroep K: Oeigoeren 18%[2]

Haplogroep K vormt ook een van de subtakken van haplogroep F. Haplogroep K is tevens de voorvader van de haplogroepen L, M, N, O, P, R, S, T. Volgens de studie van Shou et al. (2010) komt K bij de Oeigoeren na J het meest voor.

Haplogroep L: Afsjaren 57%[12], Oezbeken 9.5%[9], Tuymaznsky-Tataren 4%[6]

Hoewel haplogroep L het meest te zien is in Zuid-Azië, komt het in bepaalde hoeveelheden voor onder Turkssprekende volkeren in Centraal-Azië. Deze haplogroep is tevens aanwezig bij de Tataren. Uit onderzoek van Ömer Gökçümen naar de Afsjaren kwam haplogroep L met 57% naar voren, wat erop wijst dat de Turken deze haplogroep ook hebben meegenomen naar Klein-Azië tijdens hun tocht vanuit Centraal-Azië. L is een haplogroep die van oost naar zuid te zien is bij Turken.

Haplogroep N: Kazan-Tataren 28.3%[6], Tsjoevasjen 27.9%[6], volkeren/gemeenschappen van de Noordelijke Altaj 10%[13], Kazachen 8%[1], Oezbeken 3.9%[9]

N is ook een haplogroep die aanwezig was bij de proto-Turken. Het is een haplogroep die vrij wijdverspreid is onder Oğuz-Turken in Turkije. Dit wijst erop dat de Oğuzen tijdens hun tocht naar Klein-Azië ook haplogroep N hebben meegenomen vanuit het gebied tussen de Kaspische Zee en het Oeralgebergte. Het kenmerk van haplogroep N is dat het veelvuldig voorkomt in Noord-Europa en Noord-Azië. Het is typisch een haplogroep die kenmerkend is voor Noord-Eurazië, die vooral te zien is bij Noord-Siberische en Scandinavische volkeren. Het is met 97.3% te zien bij de Nenetsen, die hun oorsprong in de Oeral hebben, met 76.6% bij de Chanten, met 61.5% bij de Finnen, met 42% bij de Litouwers en met 50.6% bij de Joepik, die een Eskimovolk zijn. De concentratie van N neemt toe naarmate men de Noordpool nadert, en vooral bij de noordelijke Turken zien we deze haplogroep dan ook in belangrijke mate terug. Bij de Centraal-Aziatische Turken is haplogroep N tussen de 1-10% waar te nemen. In Turkije is deze haplogroep vooral bij Oğuz-Turken te zien.

Haplogroep O: Oeigoeren 10.5%[14], volkeren/gemeenschappen van de Zuidelijke Altaj 10%[13], Kazachen 5%[1]

Haplogroep O is over het algemeen kenmerkend voor Zuidoost-Azië. Zodoende is O het meest te zien in landen als China, Japan, Korea, de Filipijnen en Thailand, maar het komt in Centraal-Azië ook in belangrijke mate voor bij de Kazachen en de Oeigoeren.

Haplogroep Q: Turkmenen 33.8%[9], Oezbeken 9.5%[9], Oeigoeren 3%[16], Kirgiezen 2.2%, Kazachen 2%[1]

Haplogroep Q komt tot hoeveelheden van wel 100% voor bij de oorspronkelijke bewoners van Noord- en Zuid-Amerika. In Europese landen is het tussen de 0.5-2.5% te zien. Bij de Turken van Centraal-Azië is Q tussen de 1-10% te zien. Subtak Q1a1b (M25) van haplogroep Q is echter over het algemeen bij de Turkmenen in hoge mate aanwezig. Daarnaast is Q1a1a1 (M120) een andere subtak die met name bij de Mongolen naar voren komt. Ook van deze haplogroep (Q1a) is in de Altaj antieke DNA uit de ijzertijd gevonden. Het is met 4.2% te zien bij de Toengoezen, met 66.4% bij de Oeraalse Selkoepen en met 93.7% bij de Ketten, een volk uit Siberië dat een Dené-Jenisejische taal spreekt. Maar net als N is deze haplogroep ook in bepaalde mate te zien bij de noordelijke Turken.

Haplogroep R1a: Kirgiezen 63.5%[11], Oezbeken 27%[9], Kazan-Tataren 20%[6], Gagaoezen 19%[7], Kazachen 15%[1], Turkmenen 7%[11]

Kenmerkend voor R1a is dat het een haplogroep is die in heel Eurazië voorkomt. Net als haplogroep J2 is haplogroep R1a te zien over een uitgestrekt gebied van Azië tot Europa, en parallel aan J2 is het meer in het noorden geconcentreerd. Hoewel haplogroep R1a gemiddeld met ongeveer 50% te zien is bij Europese volkeren zoals de Slaven en Duitsers, is het hoogste percentage aanwezig bij de Kirgiezen. Deze haplogroep is haast bij alle Turkse volkeren in redelijke mate te zien. Zoals gezegd is R1a een haplogroep die vooral bij de Kirgiezen in belangrijke mate aanwezig is, meer dan bijvoorbeeld bij de Slaven. De concentratie van subtakken van R1a die met name bij Turkse volkeren ten noorden van de Altaj te zien is, neemt af bij de Oeigoeren en Oezbeken naarmate men zuidelijker van de Altaj gaat. In zeker opzicht is R1a een haplogroep die vooral bij Kyptsjak-Turken (Kazachen, Kirgiezen, volkeren van de Altaj) aanwezig is. In een aparte artikel zullen we later de bij Turken aangetroffen subtakken van R1a behandelen.

Haplogroep R1b: Basjkieren 43%[6], Tuymaznsky-Tataren 16%[6], Gagaoezen 12.5%, Oezbeken 11.1%[9], Kazachen 7%[1]

Naast dat R1b een haplogroep is die in heel Eurazië aanwezig is, is het een haplogroep die veel voorkomt bij Tuymaznsky-Tataren en Basjkieren, en die ook veelvuldig te zien is in West-Europa. Onder de Turkse volkeren is R1b het meest bij de Basjkieren te zien. R1b is ook een haplogroep die in belangrijke mate terugkomt bij haast alle Turkse volkeren. De tak L23 van deze haplogroep komt ook in bepaalde hoeveelheden terug bij de Turkse volkeren ten zuiden van Centraal-Azië en bij Turken uit Turkije.

Haplogroep R2: Oezbeken 3.1%[9]

Hoewel R2 in hogere mate in Zuid-Azië te zien is, komt het ook voor bij de Centraal-Aziatische Turkse volkeren.

Haplogroep T: Oezbeken 1.5%[9]

Naast dat T een haplogroep is die in lage hoeveelheden te zien is in Azië, Europa en Afrika, is het ook een haplogroep die weinig voorkomt bij Turken.

De Turken hebben bovengenoemde haplogroepen in de 11e en 12e eeuw of eerder meegenomen tijdens hun migraties naar West-Azië (het Midden-Oosten) vanuit Centraal-Azië. De overgrote meerderheid van de haplogroepen J2, R1b, E1, G2, J1, R1a, I, L, N, K, Q, C, H, O, G1 (in volgorde van hoogste aanwezigheid) die we in het hedendaagse Turkije aantreffen, zijn in de 11e en 13e eeuw met de massale migraties vanuit Centraal-Azië naar deze regio gekomen.

De haplogroepen A, B, M en S zijn nog niet waargenomen in Centraal-Azië. De haplogroepen A en B komen veelvuldig voor in Afrika. In huidige studies is haplogroep D in Centraal-Azië vooral in Oost-Turkestan bij Oezbeken en Oeigoeren in kleine hoeveelheden te zien; D is een haplogroep die vooral in China en Japan aanwezig is. De haplogroepen M en S zijn aan de andere kant vooral in Zuidoost-Aziatische landen te zien. In Centraal-Azië zijn de haplogroepen M en S nog niet waargenomen. Haplogroep E, die veel te zien is in Afrika, het Midden-Oosten en Zuid-Europa, komt eveneens voor in Centraal-Azië en het Wolga-Oeralgebied.

İlhan Cengiz, http://www.haplogruplar.com

Een aantal diagrammen verkregen uit huidige studies:

turkiye-ydna-haplogruplari Uygurlar haplogruplar genetik

özbekler genetik haplogruplar
iran-turkleri-azeriler-ydna-haplogruplari
tuymazinsky-tatarlari-ydna-haplogruplari
kazan-tatarlari-ydna-haplogruplari
kazaklar-ydna-haplogruplari
cuvaslar-ydna-haplogruplari
afganistan-ozbekleri-ydna-haplogruplari

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[16] Michael F Hammer et al 2005, Dual origins of the Japanese: common ground for hunter-gatherer and farmer Y chromosomes Journal of Human Genetics (2006) 51, 47–58; doi:10.1007/s10038-005-0322-0
[17] Y-DNA Haplogroup F and Its Subclades, 2015
[18] Cinnioğlu C, King R, Kivisild T, Kalfoğlu E, Atasoy S, Cavalleri GL et al. (January 2004). “Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia”. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 114 (2): 127–48. doi:10.1007/s00439-003-1031-4. PMID 14586639.
[19] Brook, Kevin A. (2014), The Genetics of Crimean Karaites, Karadeniz Araştırmaları, N: 42, p.69-84
[20] Nasidze et al., (2004)Mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromosome Variation in the Caucasus
[21] Yunusbayev, Bayazit et al 2006, Genetic Structure of Dagestan Populations: A Study of 11 Alu Insertion Polymorphisms
[22] PLoS One. 2012; 7(3): e34288. Published online Mar 28, 2012. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034288 Afghanistan’s Ethnic Groups Share a Y-Chromosomal Heritage Structured by Historical Events, Note:J2a=16.6%, and J2a5=10%. The total J2 is 26.6%. See Table.
[23] Lithuanian Tatars Nobility Project, FTDNA, 37 samples in groups have been retrieved for the pie chart, 12.01.2015.
[24] Dulik, Matthew C. et al 2011, Y-Chromosome Variation in Altaian Kazakhs Reveals a Common Paternal Gene Pool for Kazakhs and the Influence of Mongolian Expansions
[25] Zhong et al, (2011) Extended Y Chromosome Investigation Suggests Postglacial Migrations of Modern Humans into East Asia via the Northern Route, Mol Biol Evol January 1, 2011 vol. 28 no. 1 717-727, See Tables.
[26] Balaresque et al (2015), Y-chromosome descent clusters and male differential reproductive success: young lineage expansions dominate Asian pastoral nomadic populations, Supplementary Table 2

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Abraham Harold Maslow and Humanistic theories of self-actualization


 

 

 

Abraham_Maslow

Abraham Harold Maslow (/ˈmæzloʊ/[citation needed]; April 1, 1908 – June 8, 1970) was an American psychologist who was best known for creating Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, a theory of psychological health predicated on fulfilling innate human needs in priority, culminating in self-actualization.[2] Maslow was a psychology professor at Brandeis UniversityBrooklyn CollegeNew School for Social Research and Columbia University. He stressed the importance of focusing on the positive qualities in people, as opposed to treating them as a “bag of symptoms.”[3] A Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Maslow as the tenth most cited psychologist of the 20th century.[4]

 Born and raised in Brooklyn, New York, Maslow was the oldest of seven children and was classed as “mentally unstable” by a psychologist. His parents were first generation Jewish immigrants from Russia who fled from Czarist persecution in the early 20th century.[5] They had decided to live in New York City and in a multiethnic, working-class neighborhood.[6] His parents were poor and not intellectually oriented, but they valued education.[6] It was a tough time for Maslow, as he experienced anti-Semitism from his teachers and from other children around the neighborhood. He had various encounters with anti-Semitic gangs who would chase and throw rocks at him.[7] Maslow and other young people at the time with his background were struggling to overcome such acts of racism and ethnic prejudice in the attempt to establish an idealistic world based on widespread education and monetary justice.[8] The tension outside his home was also felt within it, he rarely got along with his mother, and eventually developed a strong revulsion to her. He is quoted as saying, “What I had reacted to was not only her physical appearance, but also her values and world view, her stinginess, her total selfishness, her lack of love for anyone else in the world – even her own husband and children – her narcissism, her Negro prejudice, her exploitation of everyone, her assumption that anyone was wrong who disagreed with her, her lack of friends, her sloppiness and dirtiness…” He also grew up with few friends other than his cousin Will, and as a result “…[He] grew up in libraries and among books.”[9] It was here that he developed his love for reading and learning. He went to Boys High School, one of the top high schools in Brooklyn.[10] Here, he served as the officer to many academic clubs, and became editor of the Latin Magazine. He also edited Principia, the school’s Physics paper, for a year.[11] He developed other strengths as well:

As a young boy, Maslow believed physical strength to be the single most defining characteristic of a true male; hence, he exercised often and took up weight lifting in hopes of being transformed into a more muscular, tough-looking guy, however, he was unable to achieve this due to his humble-looking and chaste figure as well as his studiousness.[12]

Maslow attended the City College of New York after high school. In 1926 he began taking legal studies classes at night in addition to his undergraduate course load. He hated it and almost immediately dropped out. In 1927 he transferred to Cornell, but he left after just one semester due to poor grades and high costs.[13]He later graduated from City College and went to graduate school at the University of Wisconsin to study psychology. In 1928, he married his first cousin Bertha, who was still in high school at the time. The pair had met in Brooklyn years earlier.[14] Maslow’s psychology training at UW was decidedly experimental-behaviorist.[15] At Wisconsin he pursued a line of research which included investigating primate dominance behavior and sexuality. Maslow’s early experience with behaviorism would leave him with a strong positivist mindset.[6] Upon the recommendation of Professor Hulsey Cason, Maslow wrote his master’s thesis on “learning, retention, and reproduction of verbal material”.[16] Maslow regarded the research as embarrassingly trivial, but he completed his thesis the summer of 1931 and was awarded his master’s degree in psychology. He was so ashamed of the thesis that he removed it from the psychology library and tore out its catalog listing.[17] However, Professor Carson admired the research enough to urge Maslow to submit it for publication. Maslow’s thesis was published as two articles in 1934.

He continued his research at Columbia University, on similar themes. There he found another mentor in Alfred Adler, one of Sigmund Freud‘s early colleagues. From 1937 to 1951, Maslow was on the faculty of Brooklyn College. His family life and his experiences influenced his psychological ideas. After World War II, Maslow began to question the way psychologists had come to their conclusions, and though he did not completely disagree, he had his own ideas on how to understand the human mind.[18] He called his new discipline humanistic psychology. Maslow was already a 33-year-old father and had two children when the United States entered World War II in 1941. He was thus ineligible for the military. However, the horrors of war instead inspired a vision of peace in him and this led to his groundbreaking psychological studies of self-actualizing people. These studies began with his two mentors, anthropologist Ruth Benedict and Gestalt psychologistMax Wertheimer, whom he admired both professionally and personally. These two were so accomplished in both realms, and such “wonderful human beings” as well, that Maslow began taking notes about them and their behavior. This would be the basis of his lifelong research and thinking about mental health and human potential.[19] He wrote extensively on the subject, borrowing ideas from other psychologists but adding significantly to them, especially the concepts of a hierarchy of needsmetaneedsmetamotivationself-actualizing persons, and peak experiences. Maslow was a professor at Brandeis University from 1951 to 1969, and then became a resident fellow of the Laughlin Institute in California. In 1967, Maslow had an almost fatal heart attack, and knew his time was limited. Maslow considered himself to be a psychological pioneer. He gave future psychologists a push by bringing to light different paths to ponder.[20] He built the framework that later allowed other psychologists to add in more information. Maslow long believed that leadership should be non-intervening. Consistent with this approach, he rejected a nomination in 1963 to be president of the Association for Humanistic Psychology because he felt that the organization should develop an intellectual movement without a leader.[21]

 While jogging, Maslow suffered a severe heart attack and died on June 8, 1970 at the age of 62 in Menlo Park, California.[22][23]

 Later in life, Maslow was concerned with questions such as, “Why don’t more people self-actualize if their basic needs are met? How can we humanistically understand the problem of evil?”[24]

In the spring of 1961, Maslow and Tony Sutich founded the Journal of Humanistic Psychology, with Miles Vich as editor until 1971.[25] The journal printed its first issue in early 1961 and continues to publish academic papers.[25]

Maslow attended the Association for Humanistic Psychology’s founding meeting in 1963 where he declined nomination as its president, arguing that the new organization should develop an intellectual movement without a leader which resulted in useful strategy during the field’s early years.[26]

In 1967, Maslow was named Humanist of the Year by the American Humanist Association.[27]

Humanistic psychologists believe that every person has a strong desire to realize his or her full potential, to reach a level of “self-actualization“. The main point of that new movement, that reached its peak in 1960s, was to emphasize the positive potential of human beings.[28] Maslow positioned his work as a vital complement to that of Freud:

It is as if Freud supplied us the sick half of psychology and we must now fill it out with the healthy half.[29]

However, Maslow was highly critical of Freud, since humanistic psychologists did not recognize spirituality as a navigation for our behaviours.[30]

To prove that humans are not blindly reacting to situations, but trying to accomplish something greater, Maslow studied mentally healthy individuals instead of people with serious psychological issues. He focused on self-actualizing people. Self-actualizing people indicate a coherent personality syndrome and represent optimal psychological health and functioning.[31]

This informed his theory that a person enjoys “peak experiences“, high points in life when the individual is in harmony with himself and his surroundings. In Maslow’s view, self-actualized people can have many peak experiences throughout a day while others have those experiences less frequently.[32]

He realized that all the individuals he studied had similar personality traits. All were “reality centered,” able to differentiate what was fraudulent from what was genuine. They were also “problem centered,” meaning that those treated life’s difficulties as problems that demanded solutions. These individuals also were comfortable being alone and had healthy personal relationships. They had only a few close friends and family rather than a large number of shallow relationships.[33]

Self-actualizing people tend to focus on problems outside themselves; have a clear sense of what is true and what is false; are spontaneous and creative; and are not bound too strictly by social conventions.

Maslow noticed that self-actualized individuals had a better insight of reality, deeply accepted themselves, others and the world, and also had faced many problems and were known to be impulsive people. These self-actualized individuals were very independent and private when it came to their environment and culture, especially their very own individual development on “potentialities and inner resources”.[34]

According to Maslow, self-actualizing people share the following qualities:

  • Truth: honest, reality, beauty, pure, clean and unadulterated completeness
  • Goodness: rightness, desirability, uprightness, benevolence, honesty
  • Beauty: rightness, form, aliveness, simplicity, richness, wholeness, perfection, completion,
  • Wholeness: unity, integration, tendency to oneness, interconnectedness, simplicity, organization, structure, order, not dissociated, synergy
  • Dichotomy: transcendence: acceptance, resolution, integration, polarities, opposites, contradictions
  • Aliveness: process, not-deadness, spontaneity, self-regulation, full-functioning
  • Unique: idiosyncrasy, individuality, non comparability, novelty
  • Perfection: nothing superfluous, nothing lacking, everything in its right place, just-rightness, suitability, justice
  • Necessity: inevitability: it must be just that way, not changed in any slightest way
  • Completion: ending, justice, fulfillment
  • Justice: fairness, suitability, disinterestedness, non partiality,
  • Order: lawfulness, rightness, perfectly arranged
  • Simplicity: nakedness, abstract, essential skeletal, bluntness
  • Richness: differentiation, complexity, intricacy, totality
  • Effortlessness: ease; lack of strain, striving, or difficulty
  • Playfulness: fun, joy, amusement
  • Self-sufficiency: autonomy, independence, self-determining.[35]

Maslow based his theory partially on his own assumptions about human potential and partially on his case studies of historical figures whom he believed to be self-actualized, including Albert Einstein and Henry David Thoreau.[36] Consequently, Maslow argued, the way in which essential needs are fulfilled is just as important as the needs themselves. Together, these define the human experience. To the extent a person finds cooperative social fulfillment, he establishes meaningful relationships with other people and the larger world. In other words, he establishes meaningful connections to an external reality—an essential component of self-actualization. In contrast, to the extent that vital needs find selfish and competitive fulfillment, a person acquires hostile emotions and limited external relationships—his awareness remains internal and limited.

Maslow based his study on the writings of other psychologists, Albert Einstein and people he knew who clearly met the standard of self-actualization.

Maslow used Einstein’s writings and accomplishments to exemplify the characteristics of the self-actualized person. But Ruth Benedict and Max Wertheimer were also Maslow’s models of self-actualization. In this case, from a scientific perspective there are numerous problems with this particular approach. First, it could be argued that biographical analysis as a method is extremely subjective as it is based entirely on the opinion of the researcher. Personal opinion is always prone to bias, which reduces the validity of any data obtained. Therefore Maslow’s operational definition of Self-actualization must not be blindly accepted as scientific fact.[37]

Maslow described human needs as ordered in a prepotent hierarchy—a pressing need would need to be mostly satisfied before someone would give their attention to the next highest need. None of his published works included a visual representation of the hierarchy. The pyramidal diagram illustrating the Maslow needs hierarchy may have been created by a psychology textbook publisher as an illustrative device. This now iconic pyramid frequently depicts the spectrum of human needs, both physical and psychological, as accompaniment to articles describing Maslow’s needs theory and may give the impression that the Hierarchy of Needs is a fixed and rigid sequence of progression. Yet, starting with the first publication of his theory in 1943, Maslow described human needs as being relatively fluid—with many needs being present in a person simultaneously.[39]

The hierarchy of human needs model suggests that human needs will only be fulfilled one level at a time.[40]

According to Maslow’s theory, when a human being ascends the levels of the hierarchy having fulfilled the needs in the hierarchy, one may eventually achieve self-actualization. Late in life, Maslow came to conclude that self-actualization was not an automatic outcome of satisfying the other human needs [41][42]

Human needs as identified by Maslow:

  • At the bottom of the hierarchy are the “Basic needs or Physiological needs” of a human being: food, water, sleep and sex.
  • The next level is “Safety Needs: Security, Order, and Stability”. These two steps are important to the physical survival of the person. Once individuals have basic nutrition, shelter and safety, they attempt to accomplish more.
  • The third level of need is “Love and Belonging”, which are psychological needs; when individuals have taken care of themselves physically, they are ready to share themselves with others, such as with family and friends.
  • The fourth level is achieved when individuals feel comfortable with what they have accomplished. This is the “Esteem” level, the need to be competent and recognized, such as through status and level of success.
  • Then there is the “Cognitive” level, where individuals intellectually stimulate themselves and explore.
  • After that is the “Aesthetic” level, which is the need for harmony, order and beauty.[43]
  • At the top of the pyramid, “Need for Self-actualization” occurs when individuals reach a state of harmony and understanding because they are engaged in achieving their full potential.[44]Once a person has reached the self-actualization state they focus on themselves and try to build their own image. They may look at this in terms of feelings such as self-confidence or by accomplishing a set goal.[5]

The first four levels are known as Deficit needs or D-needs. This means that if you do not have enough of one of those four needs, you will have the feeling that you need to get it. But when you do get them, then you feel content. These needs alone are not motivating.[5]

Maslow wrote that there are certain conditions that must be fulfilled in order for the basic needs to be satisfied. For example, freedom of speech, freedom to express oneself, and freedom to seek new information[45] are a few of the prerequisites. Any blockages of these freedoms could prevent the satisfaction of the basic needs.

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs has been subject to internet memes over the past few years. Specifically looking at the recent integration of technology in our lives.[46]

Beyond the routine of needs fulfillment, Maslow envisioned moments of extraordinary experience, known as Peak experiences, which are profound moments of love, understanding, happiness, or rapture, during which a person feels more whole, alive, self-sufficient and yet a part of the world, more aware of truth, justice, harmony, goodness, and so on. Self-actualizing people have many such peak experiences. In other words, these “peak experiences” or states of flow are the reflections of the realization of one’s human potential and represent the height of personality development[47]

 

 

Maslow used the term metamotivation to describe self-actualized people who are driven by innate forces beyond their basic needs, so that they may explore and reach their full human potential.[48]

In studying accounts of peak experiences, Maslow identified a manner of thought he called “Being-cognition” (or “B-cognition”), which is holistic and accepting, as opposed to the evaluative “Deficiency-cognition” (or “D-cognition”), and values he called “Being-values”.[49] He listed the B-values as:

  • Wholeness (unity; integration; tendency to one-ness; interconnectedness; simplicity; organization; structure; dichotomy-transcendence; order);
  • Perfection (necessity; just-right-ness; just-so-ness; inevitability; suitability; justice; completeness; “oughtness”);
  • Completion (ending; finality; justice; “it’s finished”; fulfillment; finis and telos; destiny; fate);
  • Justice (fairness; orderliness; lawfulness; “oughtness”);
  • Aliveness (process; non-deadness; spontaneity; self-regulation; full-functioning);
  • Richness (differentiation, complexity; intricacy);
  • Simplicity (honesty; nakedness; essentiality; abstract, essential, skeletal structure);
  • Beauty (rightness; form; aliveness; simplicity; richness; wholeness; perfection; completion; uniqueness; honesty);
  • Goodness (rightness; desirability; oughtness; justice; benevolence; honesty);
  • Uniqueness (idiosyncrasy; individuality; non-comparability; novelty);
  • Effortlessness (ease; lack of strain, striving or difficulty; grace; perfect, beautiful functioning);
  • Playfulness (fun; joy; amusement; gaiety; humor; exuberance; effortlessness);
  • Truth (honesty; reality; nakedness; simplicity; richness; oughtness; beauty; pure, clean and unadulterated; completeness; essentiality).
  • Self-sufficiency (autonomy; independence; not-needing-other-than-itself-in-order-to-be-itself; self-determining; environment-transcendence; separateness; living by its own laws).

Maslow’s thinking was original. Most psychologists before him had been concerned with the abnormal and the ill. He urged people to acknowledge their basic needs before addressing higher needs and ultimately self-actualization. He wanted to know what constituted positive mental health. Humanistic psychology gave rise to several different therapies, all guided by the idea that people possess the inner resources for growth and healing and that the point of therapy is to help remove obstacles to individuals’ achieving them. The most famous of these was client-centered therapy developed by Carl Rogers.

The basic principles behind humanistic psychology are simple: 1. Someone’s present functioning is their most significant aspect. As a result humanists emphasize the here and now instead of examining the past or attempting to predict the future. 2. To be mentally healthy, individuals must take personal responsibility for their actions, regardless of whether the actions are positive or negative. 3. Each person, simply by being, is inherently worthy. While any given action may be negative, these actions do not cancel out the value of a person. 4. The ultimate goal of living is to attain personal growth and understanding. Only through constant self-improvement and self-understanding can an individual ever be truly happy.[50]

Humanistic psychology theory suits people who see the positive side of humanity and believe in free will. This theory clearly contrasts with Freud’s theory of biological determinism. Another significant strength is that humanistic psychology theory is compatible with other schools of thought. Maslow’s Hierarchy is also applicable to other topics, such as finance, economics, or even in history or criminology. Humanist psychology, also coined positive psychology, is criticized for its lack of empirical validation and therefore its lack of usefulness in treating specific problems. It may also fail to help or diagnose people who have severe mental disorders.[50]

Maslow’s influence extended beyond psychology. His work on peak experiences is relevant to religious studies, while his work on management is applicable totranspersonal business studiesMaslow’s Hierarchy is used in higher education for advising students and student retention[51] as well as a key concept in student development.[52] Maslow himself found it difficult to accept religious experience as valid unless placed in a positivistic framework.[53]

 

Maslow called his work positive psychology.[54][55] His work has enjoyed a revival of interest and influence among leaders of the positive psychology movement such as Martin Seligman. This movement focuses only on a higher human nature.[56][57] Positive psychology spends its research looking at the positive side of things and how they go right rather than the pessimistic side.[58]

 

He is also known for Maslow’s hammer, popularly phrased as “if all you have is a hammer, everything looks like a nail” from his book The Psychology of Science, published in 1966.[59]

 

Maslow’s ideas have been criticized for their lack of scientific rigor. He was criticized as too soft scientifically by American empiricists.[53] In 2006, author and former philosophy professor Christina Hoff Sommers and practicing psychiatrist Sally Satel asserted that, due to lack of empirical support, Maslow’s ideas have fallen out of fashion and are “no longer taken seriously in the world of academic psychology.”[60] Positive psychology spends much of its research looking for how things go right rather than the more pessimistic view point, how things go wrong.[61] Furthermore, the Hierarchy of Needs has been accused of having a cultural bias—mainly reflecting Western values and ideologies. From the perspective of many cultural psychologists, this concept is considered relative to each culture and society and cannot be universally applied.[62] Maslow’s concept of self-actualizing people was united with Piaget’s developmental theory to the process of initiation in 1993.[63]

 1024px-Maslow's_Hierarchy_of_Needs.svg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham_Maslow

http://www.maslow.com/

BİRLEŞME..


417431_3008364668043_2061295257_n

AVUTTUM KENDİMİ ŞARKILARINLA
HAYALDE OLSA GÖNÜLDE VARSIN
GÖRMESEMDE SENİ SESİNLE VARSIN
SESİNLE BEDENİN BİRLEŞİR BİR GÜN..
.

DALGALI DENİZDE BİR YELKENİM BEN
HAMSİYİM PİSİYİM BİR KALKANIM BEN
ELİNDE TUTACAK TEK OLTANIM BEN
DENİZDE TUTARSINDA BULURSUN BİR GÜN.

LIMANDA KÖRFEZDE KOYDA DA SENSİN
DERYADA KAPTANSIN KIYIDA BENSİN
CEMALİ GÖRÜNEN SEVGİLİ TENSİN
TENİNLE BEDENİM BULUŞUR BIR GÜN..

DENİZLERDE OLMAZSAN NEHİRLERDE OL
KÖYLERDE KENTLERDE ŞEHİRLERDE OL
SEVGİDE ELEM DE KAHIRLARDA OL
ZEVK İLE DERTLER BULUŞUR BİR GÜN..

SORMA İŞTE BEN HER ZAMAN BÖYLEYİM
GERİSİNİ NE SEN SOR NE BEN SÖYLEYİM
CİSİMSİZ İSİMSİZ SENİ NEYLEYİM
CİSMİNLE İSMİM BİRLEŞİR BİR GÜN

İSA KOÇAK
EĞİTİMCİ YAZAR.
21 EYLUL.2015

HASANDAGI…

Shahmat Taxtisi


12039593_932813620108942_5835948445559976900_n 12027744_932813606775610_8085463128704355040_n12046810_932813666775604_5952878047306448586_n12032999_932813636775607_986752171686738116_n
Shahmat taxtisi sus we qéniq ikki xil rengdin terkib tapqan, 64 katekchilik, kiwadrat shekillik taxtidin ibaret. Sus renglik katekche aq katekche, qéniq renglik katekche qara katekche dep atilidu. Shahmat musabiqiside, belgilime boyiche aq terep burun mangidighan bolghachqa, shahmat taxtisidiki tik we toghra qatarlarning namini atashta aq terep asas qilinidu. Shahmat taxtisidiki 8 tik qatar soldin onggha (qara terep ongdin solgha) a, b, c, d , e , f , g , h qatarliq herpler bilen ipadilinidu. Shahmat taxtisidiki sekkiz toghra qatar aq tereptin qara terepke qarap, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 qatarliq sekkiz reqem bilen ipadilinidu. Shahmat taxtisidiki tik we toghra qatarlar herp we sanlar bilen ipadilen’gendin kéyin, shahmat taxtisidiki her bir katekchining ornini shertlik belge arqiliq kordinatliq ipadiligili bolidu. Mesilen, a tik qatar bilen 1-toghra qatar késishken qara katekche a1 katekche déyilidu. E tik qatar bilen altinchi toghra qatar késishken aq katekche e6 déyilidu ( töwendiki resimge qarang) .
Oxshash renglik katekchilerning bürjekliri tutiship hasil qilghan qiypash qatarlar «yantu yollar» dep atilidu. Mesilen, b1, c2, d3, e4, f5, g6, h7 lardin shekillen’gen yantu qatarni qisqartipla (b1-h7) yantu yol dep ataymiz. A1-h8 we h1-a8 yantu qatarlar, shahmat taxtisidiki eng uzun ikki tantu qatarlar bolup, her biri sekkiz katekchidin terkib tapidu.
A, b, c, d töt tik qatardin tüzülgen yérim taxta «perzin qanat» déyilidu;e, f, g, h töt qatardin tüzülgen yérim taxta «shah qanat» déyilidu.
Shahmat taxtisining otturisidiki e5, e4, d5, d4 töt katekchiler bolsa, shahmat taxtisida «merkez» dyilidu.
Shahmat uruqliri we ularning namliri
Shahmat uruqlirining shahmat taxtisigha tizilishi töwendiki resimde körsitilgendek bolidu.

Shahmatta jem’iy 32 dane urq bolup, aq terep we qara terepte oxshashla 16 din uruq, her ikki terepte birdin shah, birdin perzin (gerde), ikkidin rux , ikkidin at, ikkidin pil we sekkizdin piyade bolidu. Shahmat uruqliri shekli, basma shekli we nami töwendikidek bolidu :
Uruqlarning uyghurche, in’glizche atilishi :
Uyghurche atilishi: shah, perzin, rux, pil , at, piyade
Niglizche atilishi: King, Queen, Rook, Bishop, Knight, Pawn
Uruqlarning xelq’araliq shertlik belgisi : oyun xatirligende shertlik belgiler qollinilidu , shah K , perzin Q , rux R, pil B, at N bilen piyadiler bolsa, özi turghan katekchining sherlik belgisi bilen ipadilinidu.
A, b, c, d töt tik qatardin tüzülgen yérim taxta «perzin qanat» déyilidu;e, f, g, h töt qatardin tüzülgen yérim taxta «shah qanat» déyilidu.

DÜŞÜNÜR, ŞAİR, EDİP MERHUM ABDURRAHİM ÖTKÜR VEFATININ 20.YILDÖNÜMÜNDA ANILDI


Hamit Göktürk / Uygur Haber ve Araştırma Merkezi (UYHAM)

Doğu Türkistan Türklerinin 20.yüzyılda  yetiştirdiği değerlerden,düşünür,şair yazar ve Edip Abdurrahim Tileşoğlu Ötkür vefatının 20.yılında doğduğu memleketi Gaziyane Kumul şehrinde törenle anıldı.
Sosyal Medya’da Muciburrahman imzası ile yayınılanan konu ile ilgili haber bu törene ait yayınlanan resimlere göre, Merhum’un vefatının 20.yılının anma etkinliğinin, memleketi Gaziyane Kumul şehrinde Orda(Saray) Restoran’da 19 Eylül 2015 Cumartesi günü gerçekleştirildiği bildirildi.

A.Otkür Zal
Kur’an-ı Kerim tilaveti ve yapılan hatım duası ile başlayan Anma programına Merhum Düşünür,Şair ve Edip Abdurrahim Ötkür’ün eşi Hatice Ötkür Hanımefendi ve kızları ,damatları ve torunları ile yakınları iştira etti. Ayrıca Urumçi’den  dostları ve sevenleri de kumul’a gelerek bu törene katıldılar.
Merhum’un hayatının anlatıldığı konuşmalardan sonra dostları Şair ve yazarlar onun şiirlerinden ve hayatından örnek ve kesitler sundular.Kumul’lu Uygur öğrencilerin onun özellikle İZ şiirini seslendirmeleri büyük heyecana sebep oldu ve  ayakta dakikalar süren alkışlarla karşılandı.Salon’un duvarları ise,Kumul’lu Hattatlarının onun şiir ve rubailerinden örneklerin yer aldığı  güzel yazıları ile süslenmiş oldukları görüldü. Anma toplantısı katılımcıları bazen derin düşüncelere garkeden ölüm sessizliği ile bazın ise, kalplerden fışkırararak taşan zapdedilmez heyecanları yansıtan alkış sesleri seleri ile salon adeta  yıkılıyordu.

A.Ötkür eşi
Anma toplantısı sonunda Doğu Türkistan tarihine 20.yüzyıla damgasını vuran kendi bağrından yetiştirdiği ülkenin bu en büyük düşünür,şair ve edibi ve fikir ve aksiyon adamına bağlılıklarını ve vefakarlığını göstermek için Muhterem Eşleri Hatice Ötkür Hanımefendi’yı sahneye davet ederek minnet ve şükran duygularını bir kez daha ifade ettiler ve ton ve doppa  giydirerek teltif ettiler. Daha sonra ise, kadirbilir ve vefakar kumul halkı ve dostları eşi ve değerli evlatalarına çeşitli hediyeler sundular. Kumul’lu Uygur Hattatlar Merhum Ötkür’ün şiir ve rubailerinden örneklerin yer aldığı  güzel hatlarını merhumun eşi ve çocuklarına takdim ettiler.
Gaziyane Kumul şehrimizin kadirşinas ve vefakar halkı ile duyarlı ve sorumlu şair, uzağı çok önceden görebilen toplum önderi merhum Abdurrahim Tileşoğlu Ötkür’ün bir birlerinden değerli dostları,sevenleri, bu  kıymetli Vatan evladını unutmadıklarını ve asla unutmayacaklarını  bu Anma etkinlikleri ile bir kez daha ispatlamış oldular.

A.Ötkür Şiir

ABdurrahim Tileşoğlu Ötkür Kimdir ?
Abdurrahim Tileşoğlu(Tileşov olarak da anılır) Ötkür 1923 yılında Doğu Türkistan’ın Çin sınırındaki Gaziler diyarı Kumul şehrinde dünya’ya geldi.İlk ve orta öğrenimini bu şehirde yaptı.Daha sonra başkent Urumçi’ye gelerek Lise ve yüksek öğrenimini o devrin en ünlü Okullarında tamamladı.1940’lı yıllarda kanlı Çinli Cellat General Şeng tarafından şiir ve yazılarınıdan dolayı tutuklandı ve bir süre hapis yattı.1944’de Gulca’da kurulan Doğu Türkistan Cumhuriyeti ile Çin yönetimi arasında imzalanan ve Doğu Türkistan siyasi tarihinde 11.bitim olarak anılan siyasi değişimden sonra kurulan Karma eyalet Hükemeti’nde görev aldı. Bu yıllarda başlayan yeniden aydınlanma ve silkinerek özüne dönme olarak adlandırılan Milliyetçi-Türkçü “3 Efendiler Hareketi”nde önde gelen aktivistleri haline geldi.Doğu Türkistan’ın Komünist Çin Ordularınca işgalı üzerine Liderlerimiz Mehmet Emin Buğra ve İsa Yusuf Alptekin ve arkadaşlarının “Vatan İçin Vatan’dan Ayrılma” düşünce ve eylemine  katılarak hicret etmeye karar verdi.Ancak.bir çok arkadaşı ile birlikte Hindistan hududundan geri dönmeke zorunda kaldı. Uzun süre takibe uğradı ve kızıl Çin zindanlarında yattı.

A.Ötkür Hat
1980’lı yıllarda Çin’de başalayan reform ve dönüşm hareketlerinde diğer arkadaşları gibi itibarı iade edildi. Abdurrahim Ötkür’ün en verimli çağları bu yıllardan sonradır. Doğu Türkistan tarihinde bir ilk olan Kaşgarlı Mahmut’un Divan-i Lugat,İt Türk adlı eserinin yayına hazırlayan kurul arasında yere aldı. 20.yüzyılda Doğu Türkistan’daki bağımsızlık ve kurtuluş hareketleri ile siyasi tarihimizi konu alan ve bir birinin devamı niteliğindeki İz ve Oyganga Zemin(Uyanan Topraklar)adlı belgesel romanlarını kaleme alarak yayınladı.En güzel ve etkileyici şiirlerini bu yıllarda yazdı.Bir çok şiir kitapaları yayınlandı.Şiirlerinin en etkileyicilerinden ve en ünlü olanı “İZ” adlı şiiridir.Bu şiir Doğu Türkistan Türklerinin umut ve özlemlerine tercüman olan ve adeta bir milli marş haline gelmiştir.
Bu şiiri bestelenmiş şarkı olarak milyonlar tarafından beğenilmekte iken,”Milli Bölücülüğü Tahrik” suçlaması ile İşgalcilar tarafından yasaklanmıştır.
Uçraşkanda(Karşılaşınca adlı şiir Kaşgarlı ünlü bestekan ve Sanatcı Abdurrahim Heyit tarafından beslenmeştir.Abdurrahim Heyit’in alt yazılı olarak hazırlanan ve Abdurrahim Ötkür’ün şiirinden bastelediği bu şarkı sosyal medya’da en az 5 milyon kez izlenmiştir. Türkiye’de ünlü sanatçı Uğur Işılak  İz şarkısını çok etkileyici ve çok güzel bir şekilde Türkçe olarak seslendirmiştir.TRT sanatçılarından Sırrı Ali Talay ise,bu şarkıyı orijinal  çok güzel ve etkili bir şekilde  Uygur Türkçesi ile yorumlamıştır.A.Ötkür Hat-1

Yazdığı eserler de Doğu Türkistan ile Türkiye arasında ilişikilerin başlaması sonucunda Türkiye’de de tanınımaya ve bilinmeye başlanmıştır. Eserleri ve şiir ve rubaileri bir çok Yüksek Lisans ve Doktora programlarında tez konusu olmuştur.

Bu çalışmalardan  en önemlilerinden biri de  ise,Gazi Üniversitesi öğretim üyelerinden Prof.Dr. sayın Hülya Kasapoğlu Cengel tarafından Doktora tezi olan  ve daha sonra iki cilt şeklinde yayınladığı Abdurrahim Ötkür ve Eserleri adlı kitabıdır.

Sayın Prof.Dr.Hülya Kasapoğlu Çengel,Merhum Ötkür’ü ilk kez  Türkiye’de tanıtan bilim insanı olmuştur.Yazdığı  2 ciltlik kitap ile   Türkiye’de ilim çervelerince  bilinip ve  tanınmasını sağlamıştır.

Uygur Haber ve Araştırma Merkezi(UYHAM) : Eserleri ile Doğu Türkistan Türklerinin fikir ve düşünce hayatında derin izler bırakan,1940’lı yıllardaki Kültür,Aydınlanma ve yeniden Öze Dönme olarak kabul edilen “3 Efendiler Hareketi”’nın önde gelen aktivististlerinden Abdurrahim Tileşoğlu Ötkür’ü vefatının 20.yılında minnet ve şükranlarımız ile bir kez daha anıyoruz, Değerli Eşleri Hatice Hanımefendi’ye ve sevgili Evlatklarına sağlık,esenlikli, huzurlu yaşam ve başarılar dileriz.

Merhum Ustadımız  merhum Abdunnahim Tileşoğlu Ötkür’ü Allah Taala  gani gani Rahmet  ve mağfiret eylesin.

http://www.uyghurnet.org/24656-2/