De genetische geschiedenis van de Turken en de genetische structuur van Centraal-Azië


De genetische geschiedenis van de Turken en de genetische structuur van Centraal-Azië 
Auteur: İlhan Cengiz (2015), Vertaler: Burak Zengin.

In dit artikel zullen we de genetische geschiedenis van de Turken behandelen aan de hand van de Y-DNA-haplogroepen die algemeen voorkomend zijn onder de Turkse volkeren van Centraal-Azië. De veelvoorkomende Y-DNA-haplogroepen onder de Turkse volkeren komen rond 46.000–65.000 v.Chr. samen bij gemeenschappelijke voorouders. In dit verband is te zien dat de Turken in duizenden jaren tijd zijn opgesplitst in verschillende haplogroepen en dat ze cultureel, historisch en taalkundig een gemeenschappelijke afstamming hebben.

haplogruplarGenetisch genealogisch onderzoek laat zien dat de Turken niet tot een enkele haplogroep behoren, maar tot minstens 14 haplogroepen. Ongeveer 12 van deze haplogroepen (G, H, I, J, K, L, N, O, P, Q, R, T), waar we verderop een lijst van hebben gegeven, waren 48.000 jaar geleden nog haplogroep F. Mutaties in de Y-STR-waarden van mannen die van haplogroep F afstamden, hebben in duizenden jaren tot het ontstaan van nieuwe haplogroepen geleid. Haplogroep F is 65.000 jaar geleden afgesplitst van onze gemeenschappelijke voorouder met de Mongolen. De voorouders van de hedendaagse Turken behoorden tussen 65.000 en 46.000 v.Chr. tot haplogroep F. De voorouders van de Mongolen behoorden rond dezelfde tijd tot haplogroep C. De voorvaderlijke haplogroep van de Turken (F) heeft tussen 46.000 en 20.000 v.Chr. diverse mutaties ondergaan waardoor afsplitsingen zijn ontstaan die tot nieuwe haplogroepen hebben geleid.[F] Uitgaand van onze voorouders van 48.000 jaar geleden, zou men technisch gezien kunnen zeggen dat vandaag alle tot aftakkingen van F behorende Turken afstammelingen zijn van deze haplogroep F.

Subhaplogroepen die voortgekomen zijn uit haplogroep F (met name G, H, I, J, K, L, N, O, P, Q, R, T) zijn de Y-DNA-haplogroepen die te zien zijn bij de Centraal-Aziatische Turken. Haplogroep C en diens aftakkingen, die ook te zien zijn bij sommige Turkse stammen, komen het meest voor bij de Mongolen en de Toengoezen. Deze twee haplogroepen (C en F) zijn 65.000 jaar geleden voortgekomen uit haplogroep CF.[CF] Daarnaast zijn ook sommige subtakken van de haplogroepen C, D en E, hoewel niet even wijdverspreid als haplogroep F, te zien onder de Turken en waren ze eveneens aanwezig onder de proto-Turken die de Turkse volkeren hebben gevormd.

f-haplogrubuIn Centraal-Azië, dat beschouwd wordt als het voorvaderlijke thuisland van de Turken, is het mogelijk om haplogroep F en diens afsplitsingen veelvuldig waar te nemen. Wanneer de verspreidingsrichtingen van de subgroepen in acht worden genomen, kan men zeggen dat Centraal-Azië naar alle waarschijnlijkheid het gebied was van waaruit haplogroep F zich heeft verspreid. Zodoende komen takken van haplogroep F erg weinig voor in Afrika. Dat paragroep F bovendien te zien is bij de Kazachen, de Gele Oeigoeren, de Oezbeken en in Tibet, China en de Himalaya’s, wijst er nogmaals op dat deze voorvaderlijke haplogroep vanuit Centraal-Azië is verspreid.[2, 26]

De voorouders van de Turken, de proto-Turken, bij wie we sporen terugzien van de levensstijl van de vroegste menselijke culturen, waren semi-nomadische krijgers die zich in duizenden jaren tijd hebben verspreid over een uitgestrekt gebied. Met deze migratiegolven zijn een tal van haplogroepen verspreid over de wereld. Zodoende zijn met het muteren van haplogroep F tijdens het vormingsproces van het Turkse volk en hun identiteit, diverse haplogroepen ontstaan waardoor meerdere haplogroepen (variaties van F) tegelijk naast elkaar te zien waren in de gebieden die door de Turken werden bewoond. Echter, doordat de Turken in stammenverband leefden en uiteen zijn gegaan (zoals de Kyptsjaken, Kirgiezen, Karlukken en Oğuzen), waren in iedere stam verschillende haplogroepen dominant.

orta-asya-turklerin-ilk-ata-yurdu-neresi-haritaDat vandaag takken voortgekomen uit de haplogroepen C, D en F te zien zijn bij volkeren en gebieden waar agglutinerende talen in gebruik zijn, laat zien dat het ontstaanspunt van agglutinerende talen (en daarmee ook het proto-Turks) veel verder teruggaat in de tijd. Hedendaagse haplogroepen (zoals G, J, N, Q, R) die voortgekomen zijn uit haplogroep F, vormen ook bij andere volkeren die een agglutinerende taal spreken (Kaukasische talen, Oeral-Altaïsche talen) de set van meest voorkomende haplogroepen, evenals bij sprekers van een dergelijke taal uit de antieke wereld (Soemerisch, Etruskisch, Hattisch, Elamitisch, Hurritisch). Het afsplitsen van F in nieuwe haplogroepen heeft dan ook te maken met mutaties die optraden tijdens volksverhuizingen naar andere gebieden of vlak in de periodes daarvoor. Parallel aan het uiteengaan van deze stammen en naties die agglutinerende talen spraken, zijn mettertijd ook hun talen uit elkaar gegroeid en gescheiden, echter hebben ze hun agglutinerende karakter behouden. De aanwezigheid van agglutinerende talen bij de eerste proto-Aziaten (Hattiërs, Soemeriërs, enz.), de Centraal-Aziaten en de volkeren van de Kaukasus en van het Wolga-Oeralgebied, wijst ook op deze gemeenschappelijke herkomst. Ook bij de Mongolen, Toengoezen, Koreanen, Mantsjoes en Japanners, eveneens oude volkeren die agglutinerende talen spreken, komen de haplogroepen C en D veelvuldig voor. Uitgaand van genetische voorspellingen, spraken de volkeren die agglutinerende talen spreken zo’n 65.000 jaar geleden naar alle waarschijnlijkheid een vergelijkbare taal.

Parallel aan de haplogroepen hebben de autosomale genen gedurende duizenden jaren mutaties ondergaan die verschillende genetische componenten hebben teweeggebracht die voor veranderingen in de fysieke verschijning van mensen hebben gezorgd. Wanneer autosomale componenten worden vergeleken, is te zien dat de Turkse volkeren gemeenschappelijke genen bezitten, echter zijn de gemeenschappelijke autosomale genen bij iedere Turkse gemeenschap in verschillende verhoudingen zichtbaar. En dit heeft voor een aantal veranderingen in de fysieke uiterlijkheden gezorgd. Y-DNA-haplogroepen zijn in die zin anders dan autosomale genen.

Onderstaande lijst geeft aan in welke mate de Y-DNA-haplogroepen die het Turkse volk vormen aanwezig zijn onder de Turkse volkeren:

Haplogroep C: Kazachen 36%[1], Karakalpakken 22.7%[3], Kirgiezen 8.9%[2], Chakassen 5.7%[4], Oeigoeren 4.3%[5]

Omdat haplogroep C in hoge mate voorkomt bij de Kazachen, de Mongolen en de Toengoezen, wordt het gezien als een Noordoost-Aziatisch kenmerk. Dat haplogroep C erg weinig voorkomt onder westelijke, zuidelijke en noordelijke Turken, wijst er mogelijk op dat deze haplogroep tijdens de Mongoolse invasies is verspreid onder de Turken. Echter, sommige subgroepen van haplogroep C kwamen reeds in veel vroegere tijden voor onder de proto-Turken.

Haplogroep E: Tsjoevasjen 14%[6], Kazan-Tataren 5.7%[6], Kazachen 2%[1], Oezbeken 1.5%[1]

De vooral in Afrika, het Midden-Oosten en Zuid-Griekenland geziene haplogroep E, komt ook voor bij de in het Wolga-Oeralgebied levende Turkse volkeren tot percentages van ongeveer 14%. Dit is eigenlijk een percentage van een niet te onderschatten hoogte. Hoewel men nog niet heeft kunnen bepalen welke variatie van haplogroep E te zien is bij de Turken, is aan de voorbeelden uit Wolga-Oeral duidelijk op te merken dat deze haplogroep reeds onder de proto-Turken aanwezig was.

Haplogroep F: Oezbeken, Turkmenen[26], Kazachen 4.8%[2], Gele Oeigoeren 6.2%[2]

De 45.000 jaar oude haplogroep F is de haplogroep waar de basishaplogroepen G, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T uit voortgekomen zijn. Omdat een aantal subgroepen van haplogroep F niet dermate gemuteerd zijn, wordt basishaplogroep F onder F* geclassificeerd als F1, F2, F3. Dat haplogroep F* gemiddeld rond de 5% te zien is bij de Kazachen in Centraal-Azië en de Gele Oeigoeren in Noord-China, is een opmerkelijk gegeven. Volgens de studie van Balaresque et al. (2015) is deze haplogroep ook te zien in Oezbekistan en Turkmenistan.

Bovendien laat de aanwezigheid van de vormen F1, F2, F3 van haplogroep F in vooral gebieden als India, Tibet, Nepal, China, Siberië ons zien dat de betreffende haplogroepen naar grote waarschijnlijkheid vanuit Centraal-Azië over de wereld zijn verspreid.

Haplogroep G: Kazachen 10%[1], Kazan-Tataren 7.6%[6], Oezbeken 3.9%[9]

Haplogroep G wordt in de basis als G1 en G2 in tweeën verdeeld. Terwijl bij de Kazachen (vooral bij de Arğın-stam van de Orta Jüz) G1 het meest te zien is, zijn subtakken van G2a rondom de Noordelijke Kaukasus en in zuidelijk Centraal-Azië aanwezig. G2a is in Kazachstan in hogere mate bij de Tataren en de Nogai te zien. De Europese Magyaren (Hongaren) en de Kazachstaanse Madjar-stam delen dezelfde 12 STR-waarden in de haplogroep G1. Volgens studies van Haber et al. en Di Cristofaro et al. zijn bij Turkmeense Afghanen en de Hazara’s subtak P303 van G2a aanwezig.

Haplogroep H: Oeigoeren 8%[2], Turkmenen 6%[3], Oezbeken 3.1%[9]

Haplogroep H, die vaker voorkomt in Zuid-Azië, komt in bepaalde mate ook voor bij de Centraal-Aziatische Turken. Het is opmerkelijk dat deze haplogroep, die weider verspreid is in India, vooral bij de Oeigoer-Turken voorkomt met een waarde van 8%.

Haplogroep I1: Kazan-Tataren 11.3%[6], Tuymaznsky-Tataren 8%[6], Tsjoevasjen 7%[6], Gagaoezen 4%[7]

Haplogroep I1 is in Noord-Europa het meest te zien in Zweden met 37%, in Noorwegen met 31.6%, in IJsland met 29% en in Finland met 28%. Deze haplogroep is te zien bij de noordelijke Turken, maar is ook in geringe mate aanwezig in Centraal-Azië.

Haplogroep I2: Gagaoezen 20%[7], Tsjoevasjen 4.7%[6], Kazan-Tataren 1.9%[6], Tuymaznsky-Tataren 4%[6]

Haplogroep I2, met 55.5% het hoogst in Bosnië-Herzegovina en 26% in Roemenië, is een haplogroep die overwegend in de Balkan aanwezig is. Het is een haplogroep die veel te zien is onder de Gagaoezen en Balkan-Turken. I2a is een haplogroep die in Centraal-Azië te zien is bij Kazachen en Tataren.

Haplogroep J1: Azerbeidzjaanse Turken 15.2%[8], Oezbeken 2.3%[9], Tsjoevasjen 2.3%[6], Tuymaznsky-Tataren 2%[6], Kazachen 2%[1], Gagaoezen 2%[7]

Hoewel de 30.000 jaar oude haplogroep J1 een haplogroep is die vaker te zien is in het Midden-Oosten, is het aanwezig in Centraal-Azië en bij Turkssprekende volkeren. Subtakken van J1 zijn nog onvoldoende onderzocht. J1 is verspreid over een uitgestrekt gebied en is onder de Turken met name te zien bij Oğuz-Turken, Tataren, Nogai en Turken uit de Kaukasus. Subtakken van J1 die te zien zijn bij de Turken en Kaukasiërs verschillen over het algemeen van de subtakken van J1 die bij Semitische volkeren te zien zijn.

Haplogroep J2: Oeigoeren 34%[2], Oezbeken 30.4%[2, Oost-Turkestan], Azerbeidzjaanse Turken 30.6%[20], Karaïm 30%[19],  Hazara’s 26.6%[22], Koemukken 25%[21], Balkaren 24%[10], Lipka-Tataren 18.9%[23], Turkmenen 17%[11], Oezbeken 16%[9], Kazan-Tataren 15.1%[6], Tsjoevasjen 14%[6], Nogai 10.4%[21], Kazachen 7%[1]

Haplogroep J2 is ongeveer 30.000 jaar geleden in Azië verschenen. Waar precies berust echter nog op gissingen. Het is in verschillende hoeveelheden waar te nemen in een uitgestrekt gebied van Centraal-Azië tot Europa, over het algemeen waarneembaar in de Kaukasus, West-Azië, Centraal-Azië, Zuid-Azië, Oost-Europa, Europa in het algemeen, de Balkan en zelfs Amerika. J2 wordt in de basis als J2a en J2b in twee takken verdeeld. Turken behoren overwegend tot J2a, maar J2b is eveneens onder hen te vinden. J2 is vooral te zien bij de Oeigoeren in Oost-Turkestan met 34%, maar is ook in belangrijke mate aanwezig bij Azerbeidzjaanse Turken, Turken uit Turkije, Karatsjaj-Balkaarse Turken, Turkmenen, Oezbeken, Tataren en Hazara’s. Tegelijkertijd komen we J2b tegen bij Tataren in het Wolga-Oeralgebied en bij Oezbeken. Subtakken van J2, die in een uitgestrekt gebied in meer of mindere mate te zien is bij haast ieder Turks volk, zijn waar te nemen onder de Turkse volkeren. J2 is bij Oğuz-Turken en Oeigoeren de haplogroep die het meest voorkomt. In twee uit de ijzertijd stammende koergans ten noorden van de Altaj zijn voorbeelden van J2 gevonden. Men denkt dat J2a ten oosten van de Kaspische Zee is verschenen.

Haplogroep K: Oeigoeren 18%[2]

Haplogroep K vormt ook een van de subtakken van haplogroep F. Haplogroep K is tevens de voorvader van de haplogroepen L, M, N, O, P, R, S, T. Volgens de studie van Shou et al. (2010) komt K bij de Oeigoeren na J het meest voor.

Haplogroep L: Afsjaren 57%[12], Oezbeken 9.5%[9], Tuymaznsky-Tataren 4%[6]

Hoewel haplogroep L het meest te zien is in Zuid-Azië, komt het in bepaalde hoeveelheden voor onder Turkssprekende volkeren in Centraal-Azië. Deze haplogroep is tevens aanwezig bij de Tataren. Uit onderzoek van Ömer Gökçümen naar de Afsjaren kwam haplogroep L met 57% naar voren, wat erop wijst dat de Turken deze haplogroep ook hebben meegenomen naar Klein-Azië tijdens hun tocht vanuit Centraal-Azië. L is een haplogroep die van oost naar zuid te zien is bij Turken.

Haplogroep N: Kazan-Tataren 28.3%[6], Tsjoevasjen 27.9%[6], volkeren/gemeenschappen van de Noordelijke Altaj 10%[13], Kazachen 8%[1], Oezbeken 3.9%[9]

N is ook een haplogroep die aanwezig was bij de proto-Turken. Het is een haplogroep die vrij wijdverspreid is onder Oğuz-Turken in Turkije. Dit wijst erop dat de Oğuzen tijdens hun tocht naar Klein-Azië ook haplogroep N hebben meegenomen vanuit het gebied tussen de Kaspische Zee en het Oeralgebergte. Het kenmerk van haplogroep N is dat het veelvuldig voorkomt in Noord-Europa en Noord-Azië. Het is typisch een haplogroep die kenmerkend is voor Noord-Eurazië, die vooral te zien is bij Noord-Siberische en Scandinavische volkeren. Het is met 97.3% te zien bij de Nenetsen, die hun oorsprong in de Oeral hebben, met 76.6% bij de Chanten, met 61.5% bij de Finnen, met 42% bij de Litouwers en met 50.6% bij de Joepik, die een Eskimovolk zijn. De concentratie van N neemt toe naarmate men de Noordpool nadert, en vooral bij de noordelijke Turken zien we deze haplogroep dan ook in belangrijke mate terug. Bij de Centraal-Aziatische Turken is haplogroep N tussen de 1-10% waar te nemen. In Turkije is deze haplogroep vooral bij Oğuz-Turken te zien.

Haplogroep O: Oeigoeren 10.5%[14], volkeren/gemeenschappen van de Zuidelijke Altaj 10%[13], Kazachen 5%[1]

Haplogroep O is over het algemeen kenmerkend voor Zuidoost-Azië. Zodoende is O het meest te zien in landen als China, Japan, Korea, de Filipijnen en Thailand, maar het komt in Centraal-Azië ook in belangrijke mate voor bij de Kazachen en de Oeigoeren.

Haplogroep Q: Turkmenen 33.8%[9], Oezbeken 9.5%[9], Oeigoeren 3%[16], Kirgiezen 2.2%, Kazachen 2%[1]

Haplogroep Q komt tot hoeveelheden van wel 100% voor bij de oorspronkelijke bewoners van Noord- en Zuid-Amerika. In Europese landen is het tussen de 0.5-2.5% te zien. Bij de Turken van Centraal-Azië is Q tussen de 1-10% te zien. Subtak Q1a1b (M25) van haplogroep Q is echter over het algemeen bij de Turkmenen in hoge mate aanwezig. Daarnaast is Q1a1a1 (M120) een andere subtak die met name bij de Mongolen naar voren komt. Ook van deze haplogroep (Q1a) is in de Altaj antieke DNA uit de ijzertijd gevonden. Het is met 4.2% te zien bij de Toengoezen, met 66.4% bij de Oeraalse Selkoepen en met 93.7% bij de Ketten, een volk uit Siberië dat een Dené-Jenisejische taal spreekt. Maar net als N is deze haplogroep ook in bepaalde mate te zien bij de noordelijke Turken.

Haplogroep R1a: Kirgiezen 63.5%[11], Oezbeken 27%[9], Kazan-Tataren 20%[6], Gagaoezen 19%[7], Kazachen 15%[1], Turkmenen 7%[11]

Kenmerkend voor R1a is dat het een haplogroep is die in heel Eurazië voorkomt. Net als haplogroep J2 is haplogroep R1a te zien over een uitgestrekt gebied van Azië tot Europa, en parallel aan J2 is het meer in het noorden geconcentreerd. Hoewel haplogroep R1a gemiddeld met ongeveer 50% te zien is bij Europese volkeren zoals de Slaven en Duitsers, is het hoogste percentage aanwezig bij de Kirgiezen. Deze haplogroep is haast bij alle Turkse volkeren in redelijke mate te zien. Zoals gezegd is R1a een haplogroep die vooral bij de Kirgiezen in belangrijke mate aanwezig is, meer dan bijvoorbeeld bij de Slaven. De concentratie van subtakken van R1a die met name bij Turkse volkeren ten noorden van de Altaj te zien is, neemt af bij de Oeigoeren en Oezbeken naarmate men zuidelijker van de Altaj gaat. In zeker opzicht is R1a een haplogroep die vooral bij Kyptsjak-Turken (Kazachen, Kirgiezen, volkeren van de Altaj) aanwezig is. In een aparte artikel zullen we later de bij Turken aangetroffen subtakken van R1a behandelen.

Haplogroep R1b: Basjkieren 43%[6], Tuymaznsky-Tataren 16%[6], Gagaoezen 12.5%, Oezbeken 11.1%[9], Kazachen 7%[1]

Naast dat R1b een haplogroep is die in heel Eurazië aanwezig is, is het een haplogroep die veel voorkomt bij Tuymaznsky-Tataren en Basjkieren, en die ook veelvuldig te zien is in West-Europa. Onder de Turkse volkeren is R1b het meest bij de Basjkieren te zien. R1b is ook een haplogroep die in belangrijke mate terugkomt bij haast alle Turkse volkeren. De tak L23 van deze haplogroep komt ook in bepaalde hoeveelheden terug bij de Turkse volkeren ten zuiden van Centraal-Azië en bij Turken uit Turkije.

Haplogroep R2: Oezbeken 3.1%[9]

Hoewel R2 in hogere mate in Zuid-Azië te zien is, komt het ook voor bij de Centraal-Aziatische Turkse volkeren.

Haplogroep T: Oezbeken 1.5%[9]

Naast dat T een haplogroep is die in lage hoeveelheden te zien is in Azië, Europa en Afrika, is het ook een haplogroep die weinig voorkomt bij Turken.

De Turken hebben bovengenoemde haplogroepen in de 11e en 12e eeuw of eerder meegenomen tijdens hun migraties naar West-Azië (het Midden-Oosten) vanuit Centraal-Azië. De overgrote meerderheid van de haplogroepen J2, R1b, E1, G2, J1, R1a, I, L, N, K, Q, C, H, O, G1 (in volgorde van hoogste aanwezigheid) die we in het hedendaagse Turkije aantreffen, zijn in de 11e en 13e eeuw met de massale migraties vanuit Centraal-Azië naar deze regio gekomen.

De haplogroepen A, B, M en S zijn nog niet waargenomen in Centraal-Azië. De haplogroepen A en B komen veelvuldig voor in Afrika. In huidige studies is haplogroep D in Centraal-Azië vooral in Oost-Turkestan bij Oezbeken en Oeigoeren in kleine hoeveelheden te zien; D is een haplogroep die vooral in China en Japan aanwezig is. De haplogroepen M en S zijn aan de andere kant vooral in Zuidoost-Aziatische landen te zien. In Centraal-Azië zijn de haplogroepen M en S nog niet waargenomen. Haplogroep E, die veel te zien is in Afrika, het Midden-Oosten en Zuid-Europa, komt eveneens voor in Centraal-Azië en het Wolga-Oeralgebied.

İlhan Cengiz, http://www.haplogruplar.com

Een aantal diagrammen verkregen uit huidige studies:

turkiye-ydna-haplogruplari Uygurlar haplogruplar genetik

özbekler genetik haplogruplar
iran-turkleri-azeriler-ydna-haplogruplari
tuymazinsky-tatarlari-ydna-haplogruplari
kazan-tatarlari-ydna-haplogruplari
kazaklar-ydna-haplogruplari
cuvaslar-ydna-haplogruplari
afganistan-ozbekleri-ydna-haplogruplari

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[16] Michael F Hammer et al 2005, Dual origins of the Japanese: common ground for hunter-gatherer and farmer Y chromosomes Journal of Human Genetics (2006) 51, 47–58; doi:10.1007/s10038-005-0322-0
[17] Y-DNA Haplogroup F and Its Subclades, 2015
[18] Cinnioğlu C, King R, Kivisild T, Kalfoğlu E, Atasoy S, Cavalleri GL et al. (January 2004). “Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia”. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 114 (2): 127–48. doi:10.1007/s00439-003-1031-4. PMID 14586639.
[19] Brook, Kevin A. (2014), The Genetics of Crimean Karaites, Karadeniz Araştırmaları, N: 42, p.69-84
[20] Nasidze et al., (2004)Mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromosome Variation in the Caucasus
[21] Yunusbayev, Bayazit et al 2006, Genetic Structure of Dagestan Populations: A Study of 11 Alu Insertion Polymorphisms
[22] PLoS One. 2012; 7(3): e34288. Published online Mar 28, 2012. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034288 Afghanistan’s Ethnic Groups Share a Y-Chromosomal Heritage Structured by Historical Events, Note:J2a=16.6%, and J2a5=10%. The total J2 is 26.6%. See Table.
[23] Lithuanian Tatars Nobility Project, FTDNA, 37 samples in groups have been retrieved for the pie chart, 12.01.2015.
[24] Dulik, Matthew C. et al 2011, Y-Chromosome Variation in Altaian Kazakhs Reveals a Common Paternal Gene Pool for Kazakhs and the Influence of Mongolian Expansions
[25] Zhong et al, (2011) Extended Y Chromosome Investigation Suggests Postglacial Migrations of Modern Humans into East Asia via the Northern Route, Mol Biol Evol January 1, 2011 vol. 28 no. 1 717-727, See Tables.
[26] Balaresque et al (2015), Y-chromosome descent clusters and male differential reproductive success: young lineage expansions dominate Asian pastoral nomadic populations, Supplementary Table 2

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Abraham Harold Maslow and Humanistic theories of self-actualization


 

 

 

Abraham_Maslow

Abraham Harold Maslow (/ˈmæzloʊ/[citation needed]; April 1, 1908 – June 8, 1970) was an American psychologist who was best known for creating Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, a theory of psychological health predicated on fulfilling innate human needs in priority, culminating in self-actualization.[2] Maslow was a psychology professor at Brandeis UniversityBrooklyn CollegeNew School for Social Research and Columbia University. He stressed the importance of focusing on the positive qualities in people, as opposed to treating them as a “bag of symptoms.”[3] A Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Maslow as the tenth most cited psychologist of the 20th century.[4]

 Born and raised in Brooklyn, New York, Maslow was the oldest of seven children and was classed as “mentally unstable” by a psychologist. His parents were first generation Jewish immigrants from Russia who fled from Czarist persecution in the early 20th century.[5] They had decided to live in New York City and in a multiethnic, working-class neighborhood.[6] His parents were poor and not intellectually oriented, but they valued education.[6] It was a tough time for Maslow, as he experienced anti-Semitism from his teachers and from other children around the neighborhood. He had various encounters with anti-Semitic gangs who would chase and throw rocks at him.[7] Maslow and other young people at the time with his background were struggling to overcome such acts of racism and ethnic prejudice in the attempt to establish an idealistic world based on widespread education and monetary justice.[8] The tension outside his home was also felt within it, he rarely got along with his mother, and eventually developed a strong revulsion to her. He is quoted as saying, “What I had reacted to was not only her physical appearance, but also her values and world view, her stinginess, her total selfishness, her lack of love for anyone else in the world – even her own husband and children – her narcissism, her Negro prejudice, her exploitation of everyone, her assumption that anyone was wrong who disagreed with her, her lack of friends, her sloppiness and dirtiness…” He also grew up with few friends other than his cousin Will, and as a result “…[He] grew up in libraries and among books.”[9] It was here that he developed his love for reading and learning. He went to Boys High School, one of the top high schools in Brooklyn.[10] Here, he served as the officer to many academic clubs, and became editor of the Latin Magazine. He also edited Principia, the school’s Physics paper, for a year.[11] He developed other strengths as well:

As a young boy, Maslow believed physical strength to be the single most defining characteristic of a true male; hence, he exercised often and took up weight lifting in hopes of being transformed into a more muscular, tough-looking guy, however, he was unable to achieve this due to his humble-looking and chaste figure as well as his studiousness.[12]

Maslow attended the City College of New York after high school. In 1926 he began taking legal studies classes at night in addition to his undergraduate course load. He hated it and almost immediately dropped out. In 1927 he transferred to Cornell, but he left after just one semester due to poor grades and high costs.[13]He later graduated from City College and went to graduate school at the University of Wisconsin to study psychology. In 1928, he married his first cousin Bertha, who was still in high school at the time. The pair had met in Brooklyn years earlier.[14] Maslow’s psychology training at UW was decidedly experimental-behaviorist.[15] At Wisconsin he pursued a line of research which included investigating primate dominance behavior and sexuality. Maslow’s early experience with behaviorism would leave him with a strong positivist mindset.[6] Upon the recommendation of Professor Hulsey Cason, Maslow wrote his master’s thesis on “learning, retention, and reproduction of verbal material”.[16] Maslow regarded the research as embarrassingly trivial, but he completed his thesis the summer of 1931 and was awarded his master’s degree in psychology. He was so ashamed of the thesis that he removed it from the psychology library and tore out its catalog listing.[17] However, Professor Carson admired the research enough to urge Maslow to submit it for publication. Maslow’s thesis was published as two articles in 1934.

He continued his research at Columbia University, on similar themes. There he found another mentor in Alfred Adler, one of Sigmund Freud‘s early colleagues. From 1937 to 1951, Maslow was on the faculty of Brooklyn College. His family life and his experiences influenced his psychological ideas. After World War II, Maslow began to question the way psychologists had come to their conclusions, and though he did not completely disagree, he had his own ideas on how to understand the human mind.[18] He called his new discipline humanistic psychology. Maslow was already a 33-year-old father and had two children when the United States entered World War II in 1941. He was thus ineligible for the military. However, the horrors of war instead inspired a vision of peace in him and this led to his groundbreaking psychological studies of self-actualizing people. These studies began with his two mentors, anthropologist Ruth Benedict and Gestalt psychologistMax Wertheimer, whom he admired both professionally and personally. These two were so accomplished in both realms, and such “wonderful human beings” as well, that Maslow began taking notes about them and their behavior. This would be the basis of his lifelong research and thinking about mental health and human potential.[19] He wrote extensively on the subject, borrowing ideas from other psychologists but adding significantly to them, especially the concepts of a hierarchy of needsmetaneedsmetamotivationself-actualizing persons, and peak experiences. Maslow was a professor at Brandeis University from 1951 to 1969, and then became a resident fellow of the Laughlin Institute in California. In 1967, Maslow had an almost fatal heart attack, and knew his time was limited. Maslow considered himself to be a psychological pioneer. He gave future psychologists a push by bringing to light different paths to ponder.[20] He built the framework that later allowed other psychologists to add in more information. Maslow long believed that leadership should be non-intervening. Consistent with this approach, he rejected a nomination in 1963 to be president of the Association for Humanistic Psychology because he felt that the organization should develop an intellectual movement without a leader.[21]

 While jogging, Maslow suffered a severe heart attack and died on June 8, 1970 at the age of 62 in Menlo Park, California.[22][23]

 Later in life, Maslow was concerned with questions such as, “Why don’t more people self-actualize if their basic needs are met? How can we humanistically understand the problem of evil?”[24]

In the spring of 1961, Maslow and Tony Sutich founded the Journal of Humanistic Psychology, with Miles Vich as editor until 1971.[25] The journal printed its first issue in early 1961 and continues to publish academic papers.[25]

Maslow attended the Association for Humanistic Psychology’s founding meeting in 1963 where he declined nomination as its president, arguing that the new organization should develop an intellectual movement without a leader which resulted in useful strategy during the field’s early years.[26]

In 1967, Maslow was named Humanist of the Year by the American Humanist Association.[27]

Humanistic psychologists believe that every person has a strong desire to realize his or her full potential, to reach a level of “self-actualization“. The main point of that new movement, that reached its peak in 1960s, was to emphasize the positive potential of human beings.[28] Maslow positioned his work as a vital complement to that of Freud:

It is as if Freud supplied us the sick half of psychology and we must now fill it out with the healthy half.[29]

However, Maslow was highly critical of Freud, since humanistic psychologists did not recognize spirituality as a navigation for our behaviours.[30]

To prove that humans are not blindly reacting to situations, but trying to accomplish something greater, Maslow studied mentally healthy individuals instead of people with serious psychological issues. He focused on self-actualizing people. Self-actualizing people indicate a coherent personality syndrome and represent optimal psychological health and functioning.[31]

This informed his theory that a person enjoys “peak experiences“, high points in life when the individual is in harmony with himself and his surroundings. In Maslow’s view, self-actualized people can have many peak experiences throughout a day while others have those experiences less frequently.[32]

He realized that all the individuals he studied had similar personality traits. All were “reality centered,” able to differentiate what was fraudulent from what was genuine. They were also “problem centered,” meaning that those treated life’s difficulties as problems that demanded solutions. These individuals also were comfortable being alone and had healthy personal relationships. They had only a few close friends and family rather than a large number of shallow relationships.[33]

Self-actualizing people tend to focus on problems outside themselves; have a clear sense of what is true and what is false; are spontaneous and creative; and are not bound too strictly by social conventions.

Maslow noticed that self-actualized individuals had a better insight of reality, deeply accepted themselves, others and the world, and also had faced many problems and were known to be impulsive people. These self-actualized individuals were very independent and private when it came to their environment and culture, especially their very own individual development on “potentialities and inner resources”.[34]

According to Maslow, self-actualizing people share the following qualities:

  • Truth: honest, reality, beauty, pure, clean and unadulterated completeness
  • Goodness: rightness, desirability, uprightness, benevolence, honesty
  • Beauty: rightness, form, aliveness, simplicity, richness, wholeness, perfection, completion,
  • Wholeness: unity, integration, tendency to oneness, interconnectedness, simplicity, organization, structure, order, not dissociated, synergy
  • Dichotomy: transcendence: acceptance, resolution, integration, polarities, opposites, contradictions
  • Aliveness: process, not-deadness, spontaneity, self-regulation, full-functioning
  • Unique: idiosyncrasy, individuality, non comparability, novelty
  • Perfection: nothing superfluous, nothing lacking, everything in its right place, just-rightness, suitability, justice
  • Necessity: inevitability: it must be just that way, not changed in any slightest way
  • Completion: ending, justice, fulfillment
  • Justice: fairness, suitability, disinterestedness, non partiality,
  • Order: lawfulness, rightness, perfectly arranged
  • Simplicity: nakedness, abstract, essential skeletal, bluntness
  • Richness: differentiation, complexity, intricacy, totality
  • Effortlessness: ease; lack of strain, striving, or difficulty
  • Playfulness: fun, joy, amusement
  • Self-sufficiency: autonomy, independence, self-determining.[35]

Maslow based his theory partially on his own assumptions about human potential and partially on his case studies of historical figures whom he believed to be self-actualized, including Albert Einstein and Henry David Thoreau.[36] Consequently, Maslow argued, the way in which essential needs are fulfilled is just as important as the needs themselves. Together, these define the human experience. To the extent a person finds cooperative social fulfillment, he establishes meaningful relationships with other people and the larger world. In other words, he establishes meaningful connections to an external reality—an essential component of self-actualization. In contrast, to the extent that vital needs find selfish and competitive fulfillment, a person acquires hostile emotions and limited external relationships—his awareness remains internal and limited.

Maslow based his study on the writings of other psychologists, Albert Einstein and people he knew who clearly met the standard of self-actualization.

Maslow used Einstein’s writings and accomplishments to exemplify the characteristics of the self-actualized person. But Ruth Benedict and Max Wertheimer were also Maslow’s models of self-actualization. In this case, from a scientific perspective there are numerous problems with this particular approach. First, it could be argued that biographical analysis as a method is extremely subjective as it is based entirely on the opinion of the researcher. Personal opinion is always prone to bias, which reduces the validity of any data obtained. Therefore Maslow’s operational definition of Self-actualization must not be blindly accepted as scientific fact.[37]

Maslow described human needs as ordered in a prepotent hierarchy—a pressing need would need to be mostly satisfied before someone would give their attention to the next highest need. None of his published works included a visual representation of the hierarchy. The pyramidal diagram illustrating the Maslow needs hierarchy may have been created by a psychology textbook publisher as an illustrative device. This now iconic pyramid frequently depicts the spectrum of human needs, both physical and psychological, as accompaniment to articles describing Maslow’s needs theory and may give the impression that the Hierarchy of Needs is a fixed and rigid sequence of progression. Yet, starting with the first publication of his theory in 1943, Maslow described human needs as being relatively fluid—with many needs being present in a person simultaneously.[39]

The hierarchy of human needs model suggests that human needs will only be fulfilled one level at a time.[40]

According to Maslow’s theory, when a human being ascends the levels of the hierarchy having fulfilled the needs in the hierarchy, one may eventually achieve self-actualization. Late in life, Maslow came to conclude that self-actualization was not an automatic outcome of satisfying the other human needs [41][42]

Human needs as identified by Maslow:

  • At the bottom of the hierarchy are the “Basic needs or Physiological needs” of a human being: food, water, sleep and sex.
  • The next level is “Safety Needs: Security, Order, and Stability”. These two steps are important to the physical survival of the person. Once individuals have basic nutrition, shelter and safety, they attempt to accomplish more.
  • The third level of need is “Love and Belonging”, which are psychological needs; when individuals have taken care of themselves physically, they are ready to share themselves with others, such as with family and friends.
  • The fourth level is achieved when individuals feel comfortable with what they have accomplished. This is the “Esteem” level, the need to be competent and recognized, such as through status and level of success.
  • Then there is the “Cognitive” level, where individuals intellectually stimulate themselves and explore.
  • After that is the “Aesthetic” level, which is the need for harmony, order and beauty.[43]
  • At the top of the pyramid, “Need for Self-actualization” occurs when individuals reach a state of harmony and understanding because they are engaged in achieving their full potential.[44]Once a person has reached the self-actualization state they focus on themselves and try to build their own image. They may look at this in terms of feelings such as self-confidence or by accomplishing a set goal.[5]

The first four levels are known as Deficit needs or D-needs. This means that if you do not have enough of one of those four needs, you will have the feeling that you need to get it. But when you do get them, then you feel content. These needs alone are not motivating.[5]

Maslow wrote that there are certain conditions that must be fulfilled in order for the basic needs to be satisfied. For example, freedom of speech, freedom to express oneself, and freedom to seek new information[45] are a few of the prerequisites. Any blockages of these freedoms could prevent the satisfaction of the basic needs.

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs has been subject to internet memes over the past few years. Specifically looking at the recent integration of technology in our lives.[46]

Beyond the routine of needs fulfillment, Maslow envisioned moments of extraordinary experience, known as Peak experiences, which are profound moments of love, understanding, happiness, or rapture, during which a person feels more whole, alive, self-sufficient and yet a part of the world, more aware of truth, justice, harmony, goodness, and so on. Self-actualizing people have many such peak experiences. In other words, these “peak experiences” or states of flow are the reflections of the realization of one’s human potential and represent the height of personality development[47]

 

 

Maslow used the term metamotivation to describe self-actualized people who are driven by innate forces beyond their basic needs, so that they may explore and reach their full human potential.[48]

In studying accounts of peak experiences, Maslow identified a manner of thought he called “Being-cognition” (or “B-cognition”), which is holistic and accepting, as opposed to the evaluative “Deficiency-cognition” (or “D-cognition”), and values he called “Being-values”.[49] He listed the B-values as:

  • Wholeness (unity; integration; tendency to one-ness; interconnectedness; simplicity; organization; structure; dichotomy-transcendence; order);
  • Perfection (necessity; just-right-ness; just-so-ness; inevitability; suitability; justice; completeness; “oughtness”);
  • Completion (ending; finality; justice; “it’s finished”; fulfillment; finis and telos; destiny; fate);
  • Justice (fairness; orderliness; lawfulness; “oughtness”);
  • Aliveness (process; non-deadness; spontaneity; self-regulation; full-functioning);
  • Richness (differentiation, complexity; intricacy);
  • Simplicity (honesty; nakedness; essentiality; abstract, essential, skeletal structure);
  • Beauty (rightness; form; aliveness; simplicity; richness; wholeness; perfection; completion; uniqueness; honesty);
  • Goodness (rightness; desirability; oughtness; justice; benevolence; honesty);
  • Uniqueness (idiosyncrasy; individuality; non-comparability; novelty);
  • Effortlessness (ease; lack of strain, striving or difficulty; grace; perfect, beautiful functioning);
  • Playfulness (fun; joy; amusement; gaiety; humor; exuberance; effortlessness);
  • Truth (honesty; reality; nakedness; simplicity; richness; oughtness; beauty; pure, clean and unadulterated; completeness; essentiality).
  • Self-sufficiency (autonomy; independence; not-needing-other-than-itself-in-order-to-be-itself; self-determining; environment-transcendence; separateness; living by its own laws).

Maslow’s thinking was original. Most psychologists before him had been concerned with the abnormal and the ill. He urged people to acknowledge their basic needs before addressing higher needs and ultimately self-actualization. He wanted to know what constituted positive mental health. Humanistic psychology gave rise to several different therapies, all guided by the idea that people possess the inner resources for growth and healing and that the point of therapy is to help remove obstacles to individuals’ achieving them. The most famous of these was client-centered therapy developed by Carl Rogers.

The basic principles behind humanistic psychology are simple: 1. Someone’s present functioning is their most significant aspect. As a result humanists emphasize the here and now instead of examining the past or attempting to predict the future. 2. To be mentally healthy, individuals must take personal responsibility for their actions, regardless of whether the actions are positive or negative. 3. Each person, simply by being, is inherently worthy. While any given action may be negative, these actions do not cancel out the value of a person. 4. The ultimate goal of living is to attain personal growth and understanding. Only through constant self-improvement and self-understanding can an individual ever be truly happy.[50]

Humanistic psychology theory suits people who see the positive side of humanity and believe in free will. This theory clearly contrasts with Freud’s theory of biological determinism. Another significant strength is that humanistic psychology theory is compatible with other schools of thought. Maslow’s Hierarchy is also applicable to other topics, such as finance, economics, or even in history or criminology. Humanist psychology, also coined positive psychology, is criticized for its lack of empirical validation and therefore its lack of usefulness in treating specific problems. It may also fail to help or diagnose people who have severe mental disorders.[50]

Maslow’s influence extended beyond psychology. His work on peak experiences is relevant to religious studies, while his work on management is applicable totranspersonal business studiesMaslow’s Hierarchy is used in higher education for advising students and student retention[51] as well as a key concept in student development.[52] Maslow himself found it difficult to accept religious experience as valid unless placed in a positivistic framework.[53]

 

Maslow called his work positive psychology.[54][55] His work has enjoyed a revival of interest and influence among leaders of the positive psychology movement such as Martin Seligman. This movement focuses only on a higher human nature.[56][57] Positive psychology spends its research looking at the positive side of things and how they go right rather than the pessimistic side.[58]

 

He is also known for Maslow’s hammer, popularly phrased as “if all you have is a hammer, everything looks like a nail” from his book The Psychology of Science, published in 1966.[59]

 

Maslow’s ideas have been criticized for their lack of scientific rigor. He was criticized as too soft scientifically by American empiricists.[53] In 2006, author and former philosophy professor Christina Hoff Sommers and practicing psychiatrist Sally Satel asserted that, due to lack of empirical support, Maslow’s ideas have fallen out of fashion and are “no longer taken seriously in the world of academic psychology.”[60] Positive psychology spends much of its research looking for how things go right rather than the more pessimistic view point, how things go wrong.[61] Furthermore, the Hierarchy of Needs has been accused of having a cultural bias—mainly reflecting Western values and ideologies. From the perspective of many cultural psychologists, this concept is considered relative to each culture and society and cannot be universally applied.[62] Maslow’s concept of self-actualizing people was united with Piaget’s developmental theory to the process of initiation in 1993.[63]

 1024px-Maslow's_Hierarchy_of_Needs.svg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham_Maslow

http://www.maslow.com/

BİRLEŞME..


417431_3008364668043_2061295257_n

AVUTTUM KENDİMİ ŞARKILARINLA
HAYALDE OLSA GÖNÜLDE VARSIN
GÖRMESEMDE SENİ SESİNLE VARSIN
SESİNLE BEDENİN BİRLEŞİR BİR GÜN..
.

DALGALI DENİZDE BİR YELKENİM BEN
HAMSİYİM PİSİYİM BİR KALKANIM BEN
ELİNDE TUTACAK TEK OLTANIM BEN
DENİZDE TUTARSINDA BULURSUN BİR GÜN.

LIMANDA KÖRFEZDE KOYDA DA SENSİN
DERYADA KAPTANSIN KIYIDA BENSİN
CEMALİ GÖRÜNEN SEVGİLİ TENSİN
TENİNLE BEDENİM BULUŞUR BIR GÜN..

DENİZLERDE OLMAZSAN NEHİRLERDE OL
KÖYLERDE KENTLERDE ŞEHİRLERDE OL
SEVGİDE ELEM DE KAHIRLARDA OL
ZEVK İLE DERTLER BULUŞUR BİR GÜN..

SORMA İŞTE BEN HER ZAMAN BÖYLEYİM
GERİSİNİ NE SEN SOR NE BEN SÖYLEYİM
CİSİMSİZ İSİMSİZ SENİ NEYLEYİM
CİSMİNLE İSMİM BİRLEŞİR BİR GÜN

İSA KOÇAK
EĞİTİMCİ YAZAR.
21 EYLUL.2015

HASANDAGI…

Shahmat Taxtisi


12039593_932813620108942_5835948445559976900_n 12027744_932813606775610_8085463128704355040_n12046810_932813666775604_5952878047306448586_n12032999_932813636775607_986752171686738116_n
Shahmat taxtisi sus we qéniq ikki xil rengdin terkib tapqan, 64 katekchilik, kiwadrat shekillik taxtidin ibaret. Sus renglik katekche aq katekche, qéniq renglik katekche qara katekche dep atilidu. Shahmat musabiqiside, belgilime boyiche aq terep burun mangidighan bolghachqa, shahmat taxtisidiki tik we toghra qatarlarning namini atashta aq terep asas qilinidu. Shahmat taxtisidiki 8 tik qatar soldin onggha (qara terep ongdin solgha) a, b, c, d , e , f , g , h qatarliq herpler bilen ipadilinidu. Shahmat taxtisidiki sekkiz toghra qatar aq tereptin qara terepke qarap, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 qatarliq sekkiz reqem bilen ipadilinidu. Shahmat taxtisidiki tik we toghra qatarlar herp we sanlar bilen ipadilen’gendin kéyin, shahmat taxtisidiki her bir katekchining ornini shertlik belge arqiliq kordinatliq ipadiligili bolidu. Mesilen, a tik qatar bilen 1-toghra qatar késishken qara katekche a1 katekche déyilidu. E tik qatar bilen altinchi toghra qatar késishken aq katekche e6 déyilidu ( töwendiki resimge qarang) .
Oxshash renglik katekchilerning bürjekliri tutiship hasil qilghan qiypash qatarlar «yantu yollar» dep atilidu. Mesilen, b1, c2, d3, e4, f5, g6, h7 lardin shekillen’gen yantu qatarni qisqartipla (b1-h7) yantu yol dep ataymiz. A1-h8 we h1-a8 yantu qatarlar, shahmat taxtisidiki eng uzun ikki tantu qatarlar bolup, her biri sekkiz katekchidin terkib tapidu.
A, b, c, d töt tik qatardin tüzülgen yérim taxta «perzin qanat» déyilidu;e, f, g, h töt qatardin tüzülgen yérim taxta «shah qanat» déyilidu.
Shahmat taxtisining otturisidiki e5, e4, d5, d4 töt katekchiler bolsa, shahmat taxtisida «merkez» dyilidu.
Shahmat uruqliri we ularning namliri
Shahmat uruqlirining shahmat taxtisigha tizilishi töwendiki resimde körsitilgendek bolidu.

Shahmatta jem’iy 32 dane urq bolup, aq terep we qara terepte oxshashla 16 din uruq, her ikki terepte birdin shah, birdin perzin (gerde), ikkidin rux , ikkidin at, ikkidin pil we sekkizdin piyade bolidu. Shahmat uruqliri shekli, basma shekli we nami töwendikidek bolidu :
Uruqlarning uyghurche, in’glizche atilishi :
Uyghurche atilishi: shah, perzin, rux, pil , at, piyade
Niglizche atilishi: King, Queen, Rook, Bishop, Knight, Pawn
Uruqlarning xelq’araliq shertlik belgisi : oyun xatirligende shertlik belgiler qollinilidu , shah K , perzin Q , rux R, pil B, at N bilen piyadiler bolsa, özi turghan katekchining sherlik belgisi bilen ipadilinidu.
A, b, c, d töt tik qatardin tüzülgen yérim taxta «perzin qanat» déyilidu;e, f, g, h töt qatardin tüzülgen yérim taxta «shah qanat» déyilidu.

DÜŞÜNÜR, ŞAİR, EDİP MERHUM ABDURRAHİM ÖTKÜR VEFATININ 20.YILDÖNÜMÜNDA ANILDI


Hamit Göktürk / Uygur Haber ve Araştırma Merkezi (UYHAM)

Doğu Türkistan Türklerinin 20.yüzyılda  yetiştirdiği değerlerden,düşünür,şair yazar ve Edip Abdurrahim Tileşoğlu Ötkür vefatının 20.yılında doğduğu memleketi Gaziyane Kumul şehrinde törenle anıldı.
Sosyal Medya’da Muciburrahman imzası ile yayınılanan konu ile ilgili haber bu törene ait yayınlanan resimlere göre, Merhum’un vefatının 20.yılının anma etkinliğinin, memleketi Gaziyane Kumul şehrinde Orda(Saray) Restoran’da 19 Eylül 2015 Cumartesi günü gerçekleştirildiği bildirildi.

A.Otkür Zal
Kur’an-ı Kerim tilaveti ve yapılan hatım duası ile başlayan Anma programına Merhum Düşünür,Şair ve Edip Abdurrahim Ötkür’ün eşi Hatice Ötkür Hanımefendi ve kızları ,damatları ve torunları ile yakınları iştira etti. Ayrıca Urumçi’den  dostları ve sevenleri de kumul’a gelerek bu törene katıldılar.
Merhum’un hayatının anlatıldığı konuşmalardan sonra dostları Şair ve yazarlar onun şiirlerinden ve hayatından örnek ve kesitler sundular.Kumul’lu Uygur öğrencilerin onun özellikle İZ şiirini seslendirmeleri büyük heyecana sebep oldu ve  ayakta dakikalar süren alkışlarla karşılandı.Salon’un duvarları ise,Kumul’lu Hattatlarının onun şiir ve rubailerinden örneklerin yer aldığı  güzel yazıları ile süslenmiş oldukları görüldü. Anma toplantısı katılımcıları bazen derin düşüncelere garkeden ölüm sessizliği ile bazın ise, kalplerden fışkırararak taşan zapdedilmez heyecanları yansıtan alkış sesleri seleri ile salon adeta  yıkılıyordu.

A.Ötkür eşi
Anma toplantısı sonunda Doğu Türkistan tarihine 20.yüzyıla damgasını vuran kendi bağrından yetiştirdiği ülkenin bu en büyük düşünür,şair ve edibi ve fikir ve aksiyon adamına bağlılıklarını ve vefakarlığını göstermek için Muhterem Eşleri Hatice Ötkür Hanımefendi’yı sahneye davet ederek minnet ve şükran duygularını bir kez daha ifade ettiler ve ton ve doppa  giydirerek teltif ettiler. Daha sonra ise, kadirbilir ve vefakar kumul halkı ve dostları eşi ve değerli evlatalarına çeşitli hediyeler sundular. Kumul’lu Uygur Hattatlar Merhum Ötkür’ün şiir ve rubailerinden örneklerin yer aldığı  güzel hatlarını merhumun eşi ve çocuklarına takdim ettiler.
Gaziyane Kumul şehrimizin kadirşinas ve vefakar halkı ile duyarlı ve sorumlu şair, uzağı çok önceden görebilen toplum önderi merhum Abdurrahim Tileşoğlu Ötkür’ün bir birlerinden değerli dostları,sevenleri, bu  kıymetli Vatan evladını unutmadıklarını ve asla unutmayacaklarını  bu Anma etkinlikleri ile bir kez daha ispatlamış oldular.

A.Ötkür Şiir

ABdurrahim Tileşoğlu Ötkür Kimdir ?
Abdurrahim Tileşoğlu(Tileşov olarak da anılır) Ötkür 1923 yılında Doğu Türkistan’ın Çin sınırındaki Gaziler diyarı Kumul şehrinde dünya’ya geldi.İlk ve orta öğrenimini bu şehirde yaptı.Daha sonra başkent Urumçi’ye gelerek Lise ve yüksek öğrenimini o devrin en ünlü Okullarında tamamladı.1940’lı yıllarda kanlı Çinli Cellat General Şeng tarafından şiir ve yazılarınıdan dolayı tutuklandı ve bir süre hapis yattı.1944’de Gulca’da kurulan Doğu Türkistan Cumhuriyeti ile Çin yönetimi arasında imzalanan ve Doğu Türkistan siyasi tarihinde 11.bitim olarak anılan siyasi değişimden sonra kurulan Karma eyalet Hükemeti’nde görev aldı. Bu yıllarda başlayan yeniden aydınlanma ve silkinerek özüne dönme olarak adlandırılan Milliyetçi-Türkçü “3 Efendiler Hareketi”nde önde gelen aktivistleri haline geldi.Doğu Türkistan’ın Komünist Çin Ordularınca işgalı üzerine Liderlerimiz Mehmet Emin Buğra ve İsa Yusuf Alptekin ve arkadaşlarının “Vatan İçin Vatan’dan Ayrılma” düşünce ve eylemine  katılarak hicret etmeye karar verdi.Ancak.bir çok arkadaşı ile birlikte Hindistan hududundan geri dönmeke zorunda kaldı. Uzun süre takibe uğradı ve kızıl Çin zindanlarında yattı.

A.Ötkür Hat
1980’lı yıllarda Çin’de başalayan reform ve dönüşm hareketlerinde diğer arkadaşları gibi itibarı iade edildi. Abdurrahim Ötkür’ün en verimli çağları bu yıllardan sonradır. Doğu Türkistan tarihinde bir ilk olan Kaşgarlı Mahmut’un Divan-i Lugat,İt Türk adlı eserinin yayına hazırlayan kurul arasında yere aldı. 20.yüzyılda Doğu Türkistan’daki bağımsızlık ve kurtuluş hareketleri ile siyasi tarihimizi konu alan ve bir birinin devamı niteliğindeki İz ve Oyganga Zemin(Uyanan Topraklar)adlı belgesel romanlarını kaleme alarak yayınladı.En güzel ve etkileyici şiirlerini bu yıllarda yazdı.Bir çok şiir kitapaları yayınlandı.Şiirlerinin en etkileyicilerinden ve en ünlü olanı “İZ” adlı şiiridir.Bu şiir Doğu Türkistan Türklerinin umut ve özlemlerine tercüman olan ve adeta bir milli marş haline gelmiştir.
Bu şiiri bestelenmiş şarkı olarak milyonlar tarafından beğenilmekte iken,”Milli Bölücülüğü Tahrik” suçlaması ile İşgalcilar tarafından yasaklanmıştır.
Uçraşkanda(Karşılaşınca adlı şiir Kaşgarlı ünlü bestekan ve Sanatcı Abdurrahim Heyit tarafından beslenmeştir.Abdurrahim Heyit’in alt yazılı olarak hazırlanan ve Abdurrahim Ötkür’ün şiirinden bastelediği bu şarkı sosyal medya’da en az 5 milyon kez izlenmiştir. Türkiye’de ünlü sanatçı Uğur Işılak  İz şarkısını çok etkileyici ve çok güzel bir şekilde Türkçe olarak seslendirmiştir.TRT sanatçılarından Sırrı Ali Talay ise,bu şarkıyı orijinal  çok güzel ve etkili bir şekilde  Uygur Türkçesi ile yorumlamıştır.A.Ötkür Hat-1

Yazdığı eserler de Doğu Türkistan ile Türkiye arasında ilişikilerin başlaması sonucunda Türkiye’de de tanınımaya ve bilinmeye başlanmıştır. Eserleri ve şiir ve rubaileri bir çok Yüksek Lisans ve Doktora programlarında tez konusu olmuştur.

Bu çalışmalardan  en önemlilerinden biri de  ise,Gazi Üniversitesi öğretim üyelerinden Prof.Dr. sayın Hülya Kasapoğlu Cengel tarafından Doktora tezi olan  ve daha sonra iki cilt şeklinde yayınladığı Abdurrahim Ötkür ve Eserleri adlı kitabıdır.

Sayın Prof.Dr.Hülya Kasapoğlu Çengel,Merhum Ötkür’ü ilk kez  Türkiye’de tanıtan bilim insanı olmuştur.Yazdığı  2 ciltlik kitap ile   Türkiye’de ilim çervelerince  bilinip ve  tanınmasını sağlamıştır.

Uygur Haber ve Araştırma Merkezi(UYHAM) : Eserleri ile Doğu Türkistan Türklerinin fikir ve düşünce hayatında derin izler bırakan,1940’lı yıllardaki Kültür,Aydınlanma ve yeniden Öze Dönme olarak kabul edilen “3 Efendiler Hareketi”’nın önde gelen aktivististlerinden Abdurrahim Tileşoğlu Ötkür’ü vefatının 20.yılında minnet ve şükranlarımız ile bir kez daha anıyoruz, Değerli Eşleri Hatice Hanımefendi’ye ve sevgili Evlatklarına sağlık,esenlikli, huzurlu yaşam ve başarılar dileriz.

Merhum Ustadımız  merhum Abdunnahim Tileşoğlu Ötkür’ü Allah Taala  gani gani Rahmet  ve mağfiret eylesin.

http://www.uyghurnet.org/24656-2/

Alim we Edip Tejelli Hezretliri Bilen Bedewlet Yaqupbegning söhbiti


0

Tejellining

Dangqi hesh-pesh digüche qeshqergimu pur ketkenidi. Özi qattiq qol, zalim bolsimu,Alim-ölimalargha bashqiche itibar bilen qaraydighan shu chaghdiki hökümdar yaqup

Begmu alimning künsayin ulghiyip bériwatqan shöhritidin xewerda idi. U bir

Qétim yeken’ge qilghan sepiride yeken hakimbigi muhemmet yunusjan shighawuldin

Tejellining hal-ehwalini sorap, uning bilen söhbette bolushni xalaydighanliqini

Bildürdi. Muhemmet yunusjan shighawul derhal ordida katta ziyapet raslap,

Chaparmenlerdin ikkini tejellini chaqirip kilishke ewetti we yekendiki chong-chong

Ölima, yurt mötiwerlirining hemmisini orda ziyapitige chillap xewer biriwetti.

Chaparmenler ordidin at oynitip chiqip, birdemdila tejellining qorosi aldigha

Kilip toxtidi we ishik halqisini jiringlashtti. Tejellining xas talipliridin

Bireylen chiqip ishikni achti.

Bu chaghda tejelli kütüpxanisigha békiniwélip, yéqin buradiri mewlane muhemmet

Yoldashqa shé’iriy mektup yéziwatatti. Tejellining ilhami hedep jush urup

Tashmaqta idi. Talip tapsidila toxtap, gélini qirip, ustazigha deydighan gipi

Barliqidin bisharet berdi. Tejelli talipqa qarap “quluqum sende” dep isharet

Qildi.

– yaqup beg aliyliri hezritim bilen hemsöhbet bolush arzusida ustazni

Hakimbeg ordisigha chillap chaparmen ewetiptu,-didi talip.

Tejelli oylinip qaldi. Shu tapta u grik peylasupi di’agon bilen iqlimgir

Iskender zulqerneyin otturisidiki bir qétimliq uchrishishni yadigha aldi:

Gérik peylasopi di’agon heqiqet arisigha shundaq chökkenki, pelsepiwi pikirler

Uni tawlap eng yoqiri pellige élip chiqqanidi. Iskender zulqerneyin qelemdar

We elemdarlirini bashlap kirt arilida uni yoqlighanda, peylasop bu ulugh

Ziyaretchige itibar qilip ketmigen. Ular bar-yoqi töt éghizla gep qilishqan:

– men makidoniyidin kelgen ulugh iskender zulqerneyin bolimen .

– men nik mez’hibidin, ismim di’agon.

– qandaq hajitingiz bolsa digen yiringizdin chiqsam deymen.

– ademliringni élip yénimdin yoqal, aptipimni tosma, telipim shu.

Neq meydanda iskender zulqerneyin’ge yéqin turghan wezirler özlirining bu ulugh

Dahiyisining “nawada men iskender zulqerneyin bolmighan bolsam, undaqta di’agon

Bolar ikenmen” dep pichirlighinini anglighan.

Biraq, hazir tejelli duch kelgen weziyet di’agon bilen iskender zulqerneyin

Otturisidiki uchrishishqa köp oxshiship ketmeytti. Gerche uning hazirqi rohi

Haliti di’agondin köp perqlenmisimu, likin uni jenubi shinjangni söhbetke teklip

Qilghan yaqup beg, iskenderge oxshash soqrattek peylasoplarning qulida

Terbiylen’gen medeniyet égisi emes idi. Büzruk xojini hej tawap qildurush

Bahanisi bilen hakimiyet ishliridin chetlinip mekkige heydiwitip, pütkül jenubi

Shinjangni hetta wezirmu ishletmey bir özi ongche igiliwalghan yaqup begning

Nahayiti qehrilik adem ikenlikini tejellimu anglighanidi. Uning teklipige

Pisent qilmasliq bashni qilichqa tutup bergen bilen barawer idi. “maqul” dep

Uning aldigha baray dise, köngli kötürmeytti. Ilhami jush urup qaynawatqan

Hazirqi peytte uning arqa-arqidin talay güzel shi’irlarni yézip, üzining rohiy

Tejribe dunyasidiki jennet huzurini sürüshke ishtihasi qewet küchlük idi. Ana

Yurtining teqdiri mesliside, u yaqup begdin alliburun ümidini üzgen idi. Uning

Bilen bolghan ülpetchilikning tejelli üchün hichqanche ehmiyiti yoq bolupla

Qalmay, eksiche bir munche bash aghriqi, gézi kelse kalla kétidighan xewp-xeterlerdin

Bisharet béretti. Tejelli hökümdarlardin yiraq turushni aqilliq dep biletti. Uningda

Qandaqtur birer mensep yaki imtiyaz temesi bolmighachqa, uning neziride nazuk

Héssiyatlar bilen sughurulghan bir misra shé’ir qimmet jehette yaqup begdin chendan

Artuq idi. Axir u üzining jawabini kütüp telmürüp turghan talipqa zixmu

Köymeydighan, kawapmu köymeydighan bir usulda jawap berdi.

Chaparmenler tejelli hezretlirining jawabini élip ordigha yitip kelgende

Yekendiki yurt kattiliri we ölümarlarning hemmisi digüdek ordigha jem bolup,

Yaqup begning aldida küchüklinip, xoshamet tüsini alghan yaghlima gepler bilen

Söhbetni bashliwetkenidi. Qaysidur bir sha’ir chirqiraq awazda shé’ir diklamatsiye

Qilip yaqup begni muhemmet eleyhissalam bilen teng urun’gha qoyup maxtawatatti. Uning

Aghzidin shölgeyliri éqip saqallirini nemliwetkenidi.

Chaparmenler orda yasawulliri arqiliq muhemmet yunusjan shighawulgha tejellining

Jawabini yetküzdi. Muhemmet yunusjan shighawul yaqup begni maxtap shé’ir

Uquwatqan sha’irgha mesxirlik külüp quyup altun kursida mügdep olturghan yaqup

Begning qulaqlirigha sarasimige chüshken halda tejellining jawabini yetküzüp

Pichirlidi:

– aliyliri, tejelli hezretliri hazir intayin bir ish bilen istiqamet üstide

Iken, ikki sa’etkiche hichkim bilen sözleshmeydiken, hazir hetta xanimimu

Uninggha gep qilalmaydiken. Shunga, aliylirining mubarek permanidin xewer tapalmay

Qaptu. Xanimi chaparmenlirimizge “tejelli hezritim istiqamettin parix bolup

Chiqqandin kiyin yaqup beg aliylirining didarigha mulaqat bolush üchün bashchilap

Chapqay” dep jawap biriptu.

Yaqup beg ghezep bilen ornidin turup ketti. Bezmidikilerning hemmsi timtas bolup

Qélishqanidi. Tejellige heset qilip yürgen bir qisim xoshametchiler yaqup begning

Ghezipidin xursen bolup özlirini quyushqili yer tapalmay qélishqanidi. Muhemmet

Yunusjan shighawul eksiche tejellining teqdiridin ensirep, chip-chip terlep

Ketkenidi. Bir haza jimjitliqtin kiyin yaqup beg hich kütülmigende özlikidin

Peskoygha chüshüp qaldi. Muhemmet yunusjan shighawul üstidin bir éghir yük élip

Tashlan’ghandek yinik uh tartip qoydi.

– tejelli hezretliri téxi yürügini qaptek qilip hökümdarning eqlini sinawitiptu.

Men hemmini chüshendim, uning istiqamette olturghinimu yalghan. Pah , uning

Jür’itige barikalla! men ene shundaq jür’etlik danishmenlerge amraq. Tejelli

Hezretliri bilen söhbetlishishni telep qilghan adem mana men, hergiz tejelli hezretliri

Emes. Elmisaqtin dawamlishiwatqan qa’ide buyiche hajetmen adem hajiti chüshken

Ademning aldigha bérishi kérek. Hajetni rawa qilghuchi hajetmenni izdep baridighan

Ish qeyerde bar? Men hemmini chüshendim. Tejelli hezritim bilen söhbetlishishni men

Telep qilghan bolghandikin, men uning aldigha bérishim kérek idi. Jama’et

Jürünglar! biz qa’ide buyiche tejelli hezretlirining huzurigha salamgha barayli!

Baya gülqeqeliri échilip ketken hesetxorlarning mana emdilikte qoltuqliridin

Tawuzliri chüshüp salpiyip qélishqanidi. Muhemmet yunusjan shighawul qulaqlirigha

Ishenmey, bir haza hangwéqip turup qaldi. Yaqup bege alliburun texttin chüshüp

Orda ishikige bérip bolghanidi. Muhemmet yunusjan shighawul birdinla isige keldi-de,

Orda mulazimlirigha ziyapet üchün teyyarlan’ghan barliq nersilerni shu péti

Tejelli hezretlirining üyige yötkeshni tapilap, orda ishikidin chiqiwatqan yaqup

Begke yügürüp digüdek yitishiwaldi.

Tejelli hezritimning shi’iri ilhamimu alliqayaqlargha uchqanidi. U ordidin

Qandaq xewer yitip kélidighanliqini angqiralmay perishan bolup olturatti. U bu

Ishning aqiwitini yaxshiliqtin köre, köprek yamanliqqa juraytti. “allagha

Tewekkul, gézi kelse béshim kéter, hazir ölmisemmu hamini bir küni ülüp

Kétimen’ghu? Béshimgha kelgenni körermen…” dep oylap oylaytti u ichide. Büwi

Ziba xénim tejellidin bekrek teshwishke chüshkenidi. U hetta tejellidin uning

Axiretlik ishlirini qandaq bir terep qilish toghrisida wesiyet sorap aware idi.

Hayal ötmey bayiqi chaparmenler ishikte yene peyda boldi, ular nahayiti téz

Chapqachqa hasirap kitishkenidi:

– hezritim, aliyliri bir top jama’etni bashlap huzurlirigha qedem teshrip qilip

Kéliwatidu!

Tejelli külümsiridi. “…qarighanda köridighan künüm bar oxshaydu” dep oylidi u.

Arqidinla a’ilisidiki ulugh-ushshaq hemmeylenni herketlendürüp mihmanxana

Öyni mihmanlargha layiq teyyarlashqa tutundi.

Birer chügün qaynim öte-ötmey neqishler bilen bézelgen, töt teripi altun, töt

At qushulghan yasidaq mepe tejellining ishik aldigha kilip toxtidi. Tejelli

Hezretliri külümsirep ishik aldigha chiqti we mepidin chüshüwatqan yaqup begke sel-pel

Égilip éhtiram bildürdi.

– aliylirining ghéribane külbemge qedem teshrip qilghinigha apirin !

Yaqup begmu öz nöwitide tejelli bilen qizghin qol éliship kürüshti:

– hedislerde: “bir alimning söhbitide bolmaq ming reket namaz uqush, ming késelni

Dawalash, ming jinaza namizigha qatnishishtin ewzel” diyilgen. Shunga, özliri bilen

Bolghan söhbetni hemmidin ela bilip, huzurlirigha kelduq.

– muhemmed peyghembirimiz yene shundaq digen: “ümmetlirim ichide ikki türlük

Kishiler bar. Ular yaxshi bolsa, bashqa kishilermu yaxshi, eger ular buzulsa

Bashqilarmu buzulidu. Ular bolsa yurt kattiliri we alimlardur”… Xelqning

Teqdiri üchün janapliridek yurt kattiliri bilen péqirdek alim sanilip

Qalghanlarning öz-ara durus niyetler üstide hemjehette bolmiqimiz zörür, elwette!

Ular shu teriqide söhbetleshkech mihmanxanigha kirip keldi. Ordidin élip

Kilin’gen nazu nimetler pütün supini igiligen dastxan’gha liq tolup yene éship

Qaldi. Hörmet sinchayliri toxtawsiz aylinip turdi. Tejelli hezretlirining “yürikini

Qaptek qilip”, perdazlimay, udul-udul pikir qilishliri tesiride sorundikilerde

Qurunush yoqap, söhbet misli körülmigen derijide janlinip ketti. Baya ordida

Yaqup begni maxtap shölgeylirini éqitishqanlar mana emdilikte yaqup begning kem

Körilidighan, pewqul’ade iltipatigha érishken bu teleylik alimni aghzi-aghzigha

Tegmey maxtashqa bashlidi. Ularning xoshametliridin alimning bedenliri tikenliship

Ketti. Chünki, ularning arisida alimni körelmey yürgenlermu bar idi.

Ular “qur’an kerim”diki

“alimlar-peyghemberlerning warisliridur”,

“bendiler ichide tengridin peqet alimlarla qorqidu”,

“bilgen bilen bilmigen qachan teng bolghan?” digen ayetlerni,

“alimlar tengrining yer yüzidiki pasibani”,

“qiyamet küni alimlar ishletken siyah bilen shihitlerning qéni tarazigha éghir

Olturidu”,

“alimlar üchün pütün asman we zémindiki perishtiler tengridin kechürüm soraydu”,”alimlarning

Derijisi adettiki musulmanlarning derijisidin yette yüz derije artuq turidu,

Derijining arliqi besh yüz yilliq”,

“tengri qaysi bendisige yaxshiliq xalisa, uni dinda alim qilidu” digendek

Hedislerni shipi keltürüp alimni hedep uchurmaqta idi.

– konilarda: “bilgenliringni eldin yushurma” dégen gep bar, -didi alim

Maxtashlardin zirikken terzide -shunga menmu bilgenlirimni silerdek ezir

Mihmanlirimdin ayap nime qilay? Hazir jama’et arisida diniy itiqad bilen

Ilim-penni bir-birige qarshi qilip qoyidighan mutessip köz qarash éghir derijide

Saqlanmaqta. Bu tarixta uzun mezgil jahan tereqqiyatining aldinqi sépide yol

Échip mangghan islam sherqini hala bu künlerge kelgende jahandiki eng tereqqi

Qilmaywatqan qalaq eller qatarigha chüshürüp qoyghan halqiliq mesile. Hazir bu

Heqte texirsizlik bilen oylanmaq lazim. Ilim-pen tengri bendilerge ata qilghan

Eng isil német. Ilim-penni inkar qilish mahiyet itibar bilen éytqanda

Tengrining németlirige kupurluq qilghanliqtur we öz-özige zulum qilghanliqtur . Qur’an

Kerimdiki ikki yüz elliktin köprek ayette musulmanlar tebi’etni tetqiq

Qilip, ilim-pen ishlirini pütün musulmanlar turmushining ayrilmas bir qismi

Qilishqa righbetlendürülgen.

Hediste: “ilim telep qilish her bir musulman er-ayal üchün perizdur” diyilgen.

Peyghembirimiz: “ilim, yiraq jungguda bolsimu bérip ögininglar” dégen. Uning

Warisliri ashu telimge emel qilip, öginish we alaqe baghlash üchün junggugha

Elchi ewetken.

Ayetlerde shundaq kélidu: “tengri aranglardin üzige iman keltürgenlerni we

Bilimge ige kishilerni yoqiri mertiwilerge kötüridu”,

Büyük ellame ghezzalining qarishiche, “biz silerge eyibinglarni yapidighan kiyim

Chüshürüp berduq” digen ayettiki “kiyim” sözi del ilimni körsitidu.

Bu dunyada bir tengridin bashqa her qandaq insan eyip we noqsanlardin xaliy

Bolalmaydu. Eyiplerni yépish we noqsanlardin xaliy bulushta bizge ilim

Öginishtin bashqa ikkinchi bir yol yoq. Pezilet we edep-exlaqmu ademge zinnet

Béghishliyalaydu. Biraq nadanlarda pezilet we edep-exlaq nimish qilsun?

Peybembirimiz: “tengri insanlarni özige oxshitip yaratqan” digenidi. Ilim

Öginish we tepekkur qilish tengrige yéqinlishshining birdinbir yuli.

Hedislerde shundaq kélidu:

“hékmet digen ulugh insanni téximu ulugh qilidu, qulni padishahliqqa yetküzidu”,

“imanning kiyimi-teqwaliq, teqwaliqning zinniti-haya, miwisi-ilimdur”,

“ibadetning eng yaxshisi ilimdur”.

Ghezzali: “ililm bolmisa ibadetmu bolmaydu” dep qaltis toghra éytqan.

Newa’i hezretlirimu: “bir sa’etlik tepekkur bir yilliq ibadettin ela” dégenidi.

Peyghembirimiz yene: “tengrining bendiliri bilimdar bolushtinmu artuq peziletni

Tapalmaydu. Elwette bir alim sheytan, bir alim sheytan’gha, ming qara qosaq

Musulmandin bir alim qorqunuchluqraqtur. Hemme nersining tüwriki bar, dinning

Tüwriki bolsa ilimdur” deydu.

Tenning ghizasi ta’am, qelbning ghizasi ilimdur. Bu dunyadiki eng chirayliq ish

Ilim we ibadettur.

Loqman hekim shundaq digen: “alla qaqas dalilarni yamghur bilen tirildürgendek,

Dillarni hékmet nuri bilen tirildüridu”.

Peyghembirimiz yene shundaq deydu:

“perishtiler ilim izdigüchilerning ishidin xursen bolup qanatlirini uning

Ayiqigha qoyidu”,

“qur’an peqet ilim bilenla menpe’et béridu. Kimki islamni rawaj tapquzush

Üchün ilim izdigen halitide ölüp ketse, jennette u adem bilen peyghemberler

Arisida peqet bir derijila perq qalidu”.

Sahabiler shundaq digen:

“kimki ilim izdeshni j*had dep qarimaydiken, u sarang hésaplinidu”.

Muhemmed eleyhissalamgha nazil bolghan tunji söre “uqu!” digen gep bilen

Bashlan’ghan.

Medrisler-ilim ochiqidur. Biraq, hazir ademlirimiz medrislerdin xuddi

Hepsidin qachqandek qachidighan boliwaldi. Sewebi nime? Uqutush usuli nachar,

Taliplar bir ayda öginidighan dersni bir yilda öginiwatidu. Medrislerge dölet

Xezinisidin kiliwatqan yardem yoq diyerlik, muderrislerning heqqidin tartip

Medrisning ushshaq-chüshek chiqimlirining hemisi taliplarning gejgisige chüshmekte. Uning

Üstige muderrislirimizning nepsimu bek yoghinap qéliwatidu. Hetta bezi

Muderrisler wexpilerning kirimini qaqti-soqti qilshtinmu tep tartishmaywatidu. Puqralirimiz

Kembeghel, perzentlirini terbiyleshte bundaq éghir yükning höddisidin chiqalmaydu. Tengri

Öz a’ilisini gheplette qoyghuchilargha qattiq azap wede qilghan. Padishahlar üchün

Élip éytqanda puqralar ularning öz a’ile tawabatlirigha oxshash.

Ayetlerde shundaq kélidu: “herqandaq qowm öz ehwalini özgetmigiche, tengri

Ularning ehwalini özgertmeydu”

Öz waqtida sulayman eleyhissalamgha tallash üchün ilim, padishahliq we mal-dunya

Birilgenidi. Likin sulayman eleyhissalam ilimni tallidi. Padishahliq we mal-dunya

Ilimge üstek qilip birildi. Sulayman eleyhissalam ilim öginip kapir

Bolghini yoq. Biz ilim ögen’gen’ge hergiz kapir bolup qalmaymiz. Eksiche tengrige

Téximu yéqinlishimiz. Öz ehwalimizni özgeritsh üchün ilim-pen’ge jiddi yürüsh

Qilmaq kérek.

Jama’et chongqur hayajan ilgide oylinishqa esir boldi. Söhbet qizghin keypiyatta

Dawamlishiwatatti.

Arida tejelli yaqupbegning iltimasi bilen

“beharda wefa yoq, ghenimettur ol kim, chemen ichre bezme ishret qurayli..

Heqiqetni ejdihardek tartip dem, ma’aripta yolwas bolup yüreyli…”

Digen misralar yézilghan bir parchini uqup berdi.

Yaqupbeg hayajanlinip üzining üstidiki tonini sélip surunning üzidila

Tejellige keydürüp qoydi. Padishahlarning aditide bu kem körilidighan éhsan idi.

Axirida yaqup beg tejelli hezretliridin üzige qandaq hajiti bolsa tartinmay

Éytishni telep qilip, alimning hajitidin chiqishni üzige sherep dep

Bilidighanliqini qushumche qildi.

Tejelli hich kütülmigende üzining xususiy menpe’eti bilen munasiwetsiz bolghan,

Adette kalla kitishtin ensirep hichkim éytalmighan teleplerni arqa-arqidin

Yaghdurwetti:

– büyük ellame jalaliddin rumi hezretliri: “heqiqiy hakimiyet ademler

Üsitidin emes, belki uning qelbi üstidin qarar tapidu” dep qaltis toghra

Éytqan. Janabiy aliylirining qilichining zor bilen emes, belki adalet bilen

Tiklen’gen. Shundaqla xelqning qelb mayilliqliri üstige qarar tapqan heqiqi

Hakimiyet qurup chiqishlirigha tilekdashmen. Üzümchilik höküm sürgen seltenet

Mel’un seltenettur. Aldilirida tep tartmay edepsizlik qilghan bolsam

Kechürgeyla.

Baya yaqup begning derghezep bolup qan tüküp sélishidin ensirep surundikilerning

Üngsüli öchkenidi. Mana emdilikte yaqupbeg bilen tejelli ikkisining orni

Almiship qalghandek hés qilip téximu heyran boldi. Tejelli yaqupbegdin yene jay-jaylarda

Meschit sélishning ornigha medrislerni köprek sélishni, meschitlerning wexpe we dölet

Xezinisidin bérilidighan xirajetni köpeytip birishni, medrislerde yéngiche uqutush

Usulini yolgha qoyush heqqide perman chüshürüp birishni, jay-jaylarda hakimiyetning

Zori bilen bolsimu alim-ölimalarni hörmetleshni udumgha aylandurushni telep

Qildi. Üzining xususiy hajiti heqqide birer éghizmu tinmidi. Alimning surunda

Bar bolghan bir qisim reqiblirimu xuddi yaqup begke oxshashla alimning

Qurqumsizliqi we elning menpe’etinila közleydighan aliyjanap pezilitige qayil

Bolmay turalmidi.

Söhbet tang atquche dawamlashti. Yaqup beg:

– alimlarning küzikenla, nimishqa nechche waqittin biri özlirini ashkarlimay,

Bizning mubarek nezer-itibarimizdin pinhan tutup keldile? -didi alimgha su’al

Neziri bilen tikilip.

– mini maxtighanlirigha köp rehmet. Ilim égisini ilimning üzi ashkarlaydu. Üzini

Özi köz-köz qilish digen exmeqlerning ishidur, xalas! -dep jawap berdi tejelli.

(menbesi:Eldawa toridin)

MAVİ TİŞÖRTLÜ KAHRAMAN UYGUR KIZINA AĞIT


ŞANLI URUMÇİ DİRENİŞİNİN SEMBOLÜ CESUR UYGUR TÜRK KIZINA AĞIT

dogu_turkistan_kan_golu_h12905

İŞGALCI ÇİN’İN 05 TEMMUZ 2009 ‘DAKİ URUMÇİ KATLİAMINDA UYGUR TÜRKÜ HANIMLARIMIZIN KAHRAMANLIK VE  CESARETİNİ TÜM DÜNYA’YA DUYURAN MEÇHUL “MAVİ TİŞÖRTLÜ  CESUR UYGUR KIZI”  BU OLAYDAN SONRA ORTADAN  KAYBOLMUŞ VE  VE KENDİSİNDEN BİR DAHA HABER ALINAMAMIIŞTIR,ONUN YUMRUKLARINI SIKARAK  İŞGAL ASKERLERİNE KARŞI KAHRAMANCA HAYKIRMASI HAFIZALARA KAZINMIŞTI. ÇİNLİ İŞGALCILARIN GİZLİCE KATLETTİKLERİNDEN ŞÜPHELENİLEN BU CESUR KIZ İÇİN BİLİNMEYEN BİR UYGUR ŞAİRİ AŞAĞIDAKİ ŞİİRİ YAZMIŞ  VE URUMÇI DİRENİŞİNİN SEMBOLÜ CESURYÜREKLİ   UYGUR KIZINA  AĞIT OLARAK İTHAF ETMİŞTİR.

MAVİ TİŞÖRTLÜ KAHRAMAN UYGUR KIZINA AĞIT

(KÖK MAYKILIK CESUR  KIZ NAHŞISI )

Mavi tişörtlü Gök Börü Kızı
İnmişti ruhun gökten Nur gibi
Atıldın Düşma’a  Kök Börü misal
Emmiş miydin sen Kök Börü Sütü ?
Mavi Tişörtlü   Gök Börü kızı
Erkinlik için   gerdin  göğsünü
Cenkgah’a atıldın  Muştun  dürüp
Göktenmi  İNDİ ?  bu cesur yürek ?
Mavi Tişörtlü , Gök Börü Kızı
Aldın mi  Sen  gücü Hüri’lerden ?
Gösteri yapan dertlı   Analarla
Saf Tarttın Sen de Hakkı  Gözetip
Mavi Tişörtlü , Gök Börü Kızı

Elbisen masmavi ,kalbin Ap-ak
Milletin ağlarsa gözyaşı döküp
Sen göz  yaşını  sildin Gök yaprak ile
Mavi Tişörtlü  Kök Börü Kızı
Nerdesin şimdi, çok Özledik  Seni
Sen Uygur’un  gururu -Kıvançlı KIZI

UYGUR TURKÇESİ(ASLI)

Kök maykiliq Qiz –Kök böre Qizi
chushkenmu Rohung köktin nur peti
Etilding yawgha huddi Böridek
Emgenmu ya sen kök Böre Süti!
Kök maykiliq Qiz-Kök Böre Qizi
Erkinlik üchün kerding sen Kökrek
Jenggahqa chüshtüng Mushtumung bilen
Köktin chüshkenmu sanga shu Yürek !
Kök Maykiliq Qiz – Kök Böre Qizi
Alghanmu sen küch Hörlerdin köplep
Namayish qilip chiqsa Mezlum anilar ,
Sep tartting senmu Heqiqet közlep !
Kök maykiliq Qiz – Kök Böre Qizi
n de gittin ? Huri-Meleklere gibi
Seni çok Özlüyoruz ,Hasretler ile
Mavi Tişörtlü Batur Kök Börü Kızı
Sen Uygurların Kıvançlı kızı

KAYNAK : Dünya Uygur Kurultayı Enformasyon  Bürosu

Muma Qesidisi


redhairedmummiesloubeaut

Autori: Eziz Eysa Elkün

Uzaq zamanlar ilgiri
Bagh ichide mükcheygen –
Mesidexan mumam séwitige liq alma téridu
Qizil almilar
Sériq almilar
Kök almilar …
Hemmisi mey bolghan
Hemmisi bir – birliridin chirayliq
Közni qamashturidu.

Almilar xush puraq chachidu
Chünki hemmisi ichidin qurtlap ketken
Emma ana bu almilar bilen
Yeydighan’gha zaghra nan yoq
Uchigha kiyidighan’gha kiyimi yoq –
Yétim qalghan besh balisini baqidu.

Mumam qolida bir séwet qizil alma
Bedöletning yaghsirighan ishiki –
Ghichildap asta échilidu.
Mumam özi bilen teng mükcheygen
Ghéribliqqa chökken öyige kiridu
Shu’an nursiz közi aldida
Xush – xuy buwamning –
Xizir süpet simasi körinidu.

* * * * * * * *

Hayat halini halsiratqan mumam –
Qedemlirini asta bésip –
Elemlirini kötürüp yene öyidin chiqidu.
Uzaq – uzaqta qed kötürüp turghan –
Jenggahtiki tughdek heywet körün’gen –
Aq bash muz atigha qarap –
«körün’gen tagh yiraq emes» dep –
Öz – özige teselli tapidu!

Ghayip bolghan chang – tozandek
Gügümdin awal –
Xuddi mumamning aqqan yéshidek
Asmandin yamghur yaghidu …
Jahan yene birdemlik
Kech qarangghusidin burunqi séhirlik –
Ézitqu yoruqluqqa patidu!

Tonush paqa, it, at – ésheklerning –
Yene qandaqtur gheyri awazliri qoshulup kélip
Atamning ghayip mehellisi –
Mumamning sükütte chölderigen almiliq béghi –
Yan – yanliridin shorilar échilghan
Sugha zar bolup qurup chirigen –
Hemmisi zawalliqning helqumida
Yultuzsiz kéchiler
Qaytilap kelgendek körünidu!

* * * * * * * *

Doqmushtiki topa yolda
Bowamning bowisi tikken
Qatar – qatar üjme derexliri –
Hosuli köp jigde – yangaqliri
Xuddi mumamgha oxshashla mükcheygen….
Ularning eng axirqi deqiqiti –
Ezra’il ziyapitide rahet sürüwatqan
Ghemsiz begzadilerni eske salidu!

Tunggan yéghiliqidin bashlap
Paqilar makan tutqan chong köldin –
Mumam chélikige su alidu –
“chong sekrep ilgirilesh” dolqunida
Uning astigha pétip ketken tash – tömürler
Xuddi ulugh yürüshte düshmenning –
Pachaqlan’ghan top oqliridek
Dat basqan, chirighan, sésighan –
Öklükler jilghisini eske salidu.

Mumamning éytqan –
Éytmighan chöchekliri köp…
Mumamning eslimisi chégish-
Yüriki elem bilen béghish!

Ene awu qurushqa bashlighan
Aq térek qowziqigha bir chaghda
Mehellining qizil yigiti pichaq bilen
Bolqa we orghaq resimini oyghan…
Aridin anche köp ötmey
Mumamning bowiyi –
Abdul imam poméshchik dep atilip
Del mushu térekning bir shéxigha
Boynidin sirtmaq sélin’ghan…
Nechche kün kembegheller
Uning ölükige tash étip –
Puxadin chiqquche tamasha qilghan!

Bu ulugh mumamning –
Éytsa pütmes elemliri köp bolghan…
Yürikining teng yérimi köyüp kül bolghan…
Bir jup közi baliliri uchun
Nida izdep uzaqlargha yol salghan!

Mumamning méhri quyash –
U muhebbet trilogiyesini püttürüp –
Quyash ketken upuqlar taman kétip qalghan
Atisiz besh balining chuqanliri ….
Bu ersiz, panahsiz, ghéribliqqa esir öyni
Bu büyük ulugh ana rohini
Mamatliqning
Hayatliqning qismetlirri
Pütmes küresh qaynimigha salghan!

* * * * * * * *

Bu hemmisi mumamning qissisi
Men mumamni chüshep baqmighan.
Peqet ésimde qalghan
Baliliqimning tünji xatirisi –
Mehellide pada baqqinim bolghan.

Kéyin atamdin men anglighan
Mumimiz besh balisini béqip chong qilghan –
Bir toshqanni toyluq tartip …
Atam béshini ongshap qoyghan!

Atam hayat qissesimu özgiche –
U mekteptiki waqtida –
“sheriq qizardi” naxshisi éytqanmish
Mumam dunyadin yan’ghanda –
Öyi, almiliq baghliri, zémini…
Yéngi kelgen qoshnisigha tartuq qilinip –
Dönglük yénidiki bozluqqa –
Özi yalghuz bir yil kések quyup
Özi baldaqta éshek bilen toshup –
Hazir izimu qalmighan
Men tughulghan kések öyni salghanmish!

2015 – yili, 10 – Séntebir, London

Taylandtiki partlash weqesi we Uyghurlar uchrawatqan zulum 


Muxbirimiz Irade
2015-09-16
tayland-partlash-mireli-yusup.jpg

Bangkok érawan ibadetxanisidiki partlash weqesige chétishliq dep qaralghan, tayland saqchiliri turup turuwatqan gumandar mireli yüsüp. 2015-Yili 9-Séntebir, tayland.

AFP

Taylandtiki partlash weqesining uyghurlargha chétilishi chetel axbaratliriningmu diqqitini qozghidi. Közetküchiler bu heqtiki mulahiziliride taylandtiki partlashning uyghurlargha chétishliq bolush éhtimalliqi xitay hökümitining uyghurlargha yürgüzüwatqan zerbe bérish siyasitini yene bir qétim kishilerning yadigha saldi, dep baha bergen.

Taylandning bangkok shehiride 20 din artuq kishining ölümige seweb bolghan partlash üstide tekshürüsh téxi ayaghlashmighan bolsimu, emma tayland saqchi dairiliri bu qétimliq partlash weqesining jinayet gumandarliri dep tutqun qilinghan mireli yüsüp we bu weqening pilanlighuchiisi dep qariliwatqan abduraxman abdusattarning her ikkisining tughulghan yéri shinjang, dep yézilghan xitay pasportluq kishiler ikenlikini tilgha élishi bilen xelqaraning diqqiti yene uyghurlargha merkezleshti. Bügün bu heqte «yershari we mektuplar» namliq gézitte élan qilinghan mulahizide, mezkur weqening xitay hökümitining uyghurlargha qiliwatqan basturush siyasitini yene bir qétim yoruqqa chiqirip bergenliki bildürüldi.

Muxbir natan wendérkilippi teripidin yézilghan maqalide, yéqinqi yillarda taylandqa qanunsiz yollar arqiliq kirip, bu yerdin bashqa yollar arqiliq türkiyege qachidighan uyghurlarning köplep ketkenliki, ularning éniq sanini bilish mumkin bolmisimu, emma tayland saqchi dairilirining qoligha chüshüp qalghanlarningla nechche yüzdin ashidighanliqigha qarighanda, qachaq yollar arqiliq taylandqa kiriwatqan uyghurlarning sanini mingdin ashidu, dep qarashqa bolidighanliqini bildürgen. U awstraliye uniwérsitétining proféssori, uyghur éli tetqiqatchisi maykil kilarkning sözini neqil qilip turup, buning uyghurlarning tunji qétim yurtlirini tashlap qéchishi emeslikini, gomindang mezgilide we xitay kommunistliri kelgendin kéyinmu bir qanche qétimliq zor köch-Köchlerning bolghanliqini misalliri bilen bérip ötken. Tetqiqatchi maykil kilark ependi muxbirgha «uyghurlarning hazirqi bu qéchish dolquni xuddi eyni yillardikige oxshashla ularning xitay hökümitining yerliktiki siyasetlirige bolghan naraziliqidin bolmaqta» dégen. U yene eskertip «bu ehwal shundaqla hem xitay hökümitining sözliridiki ziddiyetni ilgiriligen halda yorutup béridu. Chünki xitay bir yaqtin öz chégrasi ichide térrorluq tehditi barliqini ilgiri sürgen bolsa, yene bir yaqtin bolsa xitayning milliy siyasitining shinjanggha parawanliq we muqimliq élip kelgenlikini ilgiri sürüp kelgen» dégen.

Muxbir natan wendér kilippi maqalisi dawamida, xitay hökümitining muqimliqqa kapaletlik qilish siyasetlirining oxshash waqitta yerlik medeniyetni ajizlashturush we uni kontrol qilishnimu öz ichige alidighanliqini bildürgen we munularni bayan qilghan: «xitay hökümitining siyasetliri uzun muddetlik qamaq jazalirini we qattiq teqib qilishni öz ichige alghan. Ular uyghur ata-Anilirining balilirigha din ögitishige arilishidu. Mekteplerde nurghun derslerni uyghur tilida bérish emeldin qaldurulghan. Uyghur élining bir qisim jaylirida yerlik hökümetler hetta musulman ammisigha haraq-Tamaka sétishni teshwiq qilish arqiliq muqimliqni saqlashqa urundi. Adette uyghur élida hökümet we dölet organliridiki xizmetchilerning ish ornida namaz oqushi cheklinidu. Ramzan mezgilide rozi tutushi cheklinidu. Meschit etrapliri we poyiz istansilirini herbiyler xuddi urush waqtigha oxshash aptomatik qorallar bilen qorallinip charlaydu.»

Muxbir yuqiridiki ehwalgha qarita tetqiqatchi maykil kilark ependining sözini neqil qilghan. Maykil ependi sözide «menche bu yerdiki mesile, xitay hazir öz qoli bilen özige bala tériwatidu. Xitay tinch yollar arqiliq naraziliqini ipadileydighan we öktichilik qilidighan yollarni étiwetkendin kéyin, u yerde qalidighini peqet zorawanliq bolidu. Shunga bundaq bir sharaitta bir qisim uyghurlar xelqara jihad herikitige qatnishish arqiliq xitay hakimiyitige we yaki impérializmgha qarshi küresh qilmaqchi bolghan bolsimu heyran qalghuchiliki yoq» dégen.

Muxbir sözide, xitaydin qéchip chiqiwatqan uyghurlarning zadi qanchilik derijide bundaq zorawanliqqa ishtirak qilish niyiti barliqining éniq emeslikini, chünki nurghunlirining peqetla özlirige yaxshiraq hayat izdepla chetellerge chiqidighanliqini, ularning qanunsiz yollarni tallishidiki sewebning bolsa uyghurlarning pasport élishtiki qiyinchiliqtin kélip chiqqanliqini bildürgen. Muxbir yene jorj washington uniwérsitétining proféssori shan robértisnimu ziyaret qilghan. Shan robértés ependimu sözide nurghun uyghurlarning meqsitining peqet xitaydin qéchish ikenlikini, radikal guruppilargha qatniship qalghan uyghurlarningmu bir qisimlirining bu guruppilargha tasadipiy qatniship qalghanliqini, yeni bu kishiler yat elge qéchip chiqqanda mushundaq teshkilatlargha adem qobul qilidighanlar bilen tonushup qalghanliqtin bolghanliqini bildürgen.

Muxbir natan maqalisi axirida, xitay hökümitining chetellerge qéchip ketken uyghurlarni qayturup ekétish üchün zor küch chiqiridighanliqini, etraptiki qoshna döletlerge adette meblegh sélish, tijaret qilish wediliri bilen qéchip chiqqan uyghurlarni qayturup ekitidighanliqini, ulargha hetta térrorrluq jinayiti artidighanliqini we hazirghiche qayturup kétilgen nurghun uyghurlarning iz-Dérikining bolmighanliqini bayan qilghan.

Ülkü Ochaqliri Jurnili Uyghuristangha Atap Mexsus San Chiqardi


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Türkiyede paaliyet élip bériwatqan eng chong yashlar uyushmiliridin biri bolghan «ülkü ojaqliri maarip we medeniyet wexpi» zhurnilining 8-Ayliq sanini sherqiy türkistan mesilisige atidi.

Renglik qeghezge bésilghan renglik resimler bilen bézelgen zhurnalning tashwariqigha ottura asiya türkiy jumhuriyetliri we uyghur diyari körsitilgen xerite chüshürülgen bolup, xeritining üstige dua qilip turghan sherqiy türkistanning kök bayriqini yépiniwalghan uyghur balining resimi chüshürülgen. Uzun yillardin béri chiqiriliwatqan «ülkü ojaqliri zhurnili»ning 8 ayliq sherqiy türkistan mesilisige atalghan sani 80 bettin terkib tapqan bolup, mezkur sangha sherqiy türkistan wexpining sabiq reisi hamit göktürk yazghan «sherqiy türkistanda xitay ishghali we sherqiy türkistan musteqilliq herikiti», xalil alperen ishq yazghan «xelqara qanunda sherqiy türkistan mesilisi», alperen nejat gönen yazghan «kök bayraqning sayisida» mawzuluq maqalisi, semih diri ependi yazghan «uyghur medeniyiti we edebiyati toghrisida qisqiche mulahize», asiya merwe awshar xanim bilen gökxan gökchek ependi yazghan «sherqiy türkistanda maarip we assimilyatsiye siyasiti toghrisida» mawzuluq maqalisi, tolgha aslan ependi yazghan «xelqara qanunda sherqiy türkistan mesilisi», abdulsemet chanqaya ependi yazghan «uyghur türklirining milliy kiyimi -Doppa » mawzuluq maqalisi, yasin ilterish doghan ependi teyyarlighan «sherqiy türkistanning lidérliri» mawzuluq maqale we «biz tewsiye qilghan menbeler» mawzuluq maqaliler kirgüzülgen. Zhurnalning axirqi bétige türkiye milletchi heriket partiyesi reisi merhum alparslan türkesh bilen merhum eysa yüsüp aliptékinning bille chüshken resimi, sabiq bash ministir muawini dewlet baghchelining uyghur diyarigha élip barghan ziyariti jeryanida uyghurlar bilen chüshken resimlirige orun bérilgen.

Biz zhurnalning bu sani toghrisida téximu köp melumat igilesh üchün mezkur zhurnalning xojayini ülkü ojaqliri maarip we medeniyet wexpining reisi oljay kilawuz ependi we zhurnalning bu sanida maqalisi élan qilinghan hamit göktürk ependiler bilen söhbet élip barduq.

Oljay kilawuz ependi sherqiy türkistan mesilisige atap mexsus san chiqirishtiki meqsiti heqqide toxtilip mundaq dédi:
U yerdiki qérindashlirimizning bésim, zulumgha uchrawatqanliqi üchün biz ülkü ojaqliri teshkilati bolush süpitimiz bilen kéyinki künlerde türkiyede we dunyada jamaet pikri toplash üchün paaliyetler élip bériwatimiz. Mesilen taylanddiki uyghurlarni türkiyege élip kélish üchün imza yighish paaliyiti ötküzduq. Ramazan éyida xitayning sherqiy türkistanliqlargha élip bériwatqan diniy bésimgha naraziliq bildürüsh üchün herqaysi sheherlerde naraziliq namayishliri ötküzduq. Metbuatlargha bayanat berduq. Bu paaliyetlirimizning dawami süpitide zhurnilimizning bu sanini sherqiy türkistan mesilisige atiduq. Bizning meqsitimiz sherqiy türkistan mesilisini türkiye we dunya jamaetchilikige anglitish arqiliq xitayning bésimini assimilyatsiye siyasitini özgertishtin ibaret. Shunga uyghurlarning tili, edebiyati, medeniyiti, senet we muzikiliri we uyghur musapirlarning mesililirige oxshash bir yürüsh mesililer toghrisidiki maqalilerni yazdurup mexsus san chiqarduq. Bu zhurnal hazir on minglighan oqurmenliri bilen yüz körüshti.

Hamit köktürk ependi bolsa zhurnalning tarqilish dairisining bek keng ikenlikini sherqiy türkistan dewasining yuqiri pellige chiqishi üchün paydiliq bolidighanliqini bayan qildi.(Ixtiyariy muxbirimiz Erkin Tarim)

Nietzsche on Buddhist philosophy


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Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) was one of the most profound and influential philosophers. Nietzsche, exerts a powerful and enduring influence over modern thought. Nietzsche’s writings contain many ideas and concepts such as perspectivism, the will to power, master-slave morality, the death of God, the Übermensch (Overman) and eternal recurrence. He gave many insights into the human character.

Although he was critical of a number of religions Nietzsche saw Buddhism as a more realistic religion. According to Antoine Panaïoti the author of Nietzsche and Buddhist Philosophy points out that there is a subtle relationship between Nietzsche’s Philosophy and Buddhism

Nietzsche’s work relentlessly undermines the elevation of ‘literal’ over ‘metaphorical’ truth. He argues that we cannot privilege literal or ‘pure’ truth over metaphor because truth is itself a metaphor that has been invented to lend authority to particular forms of thought and styles of living. He argues repeatedly, for example, that the ‘truths’ of religious teaching are really dominant perspectives upon the meaning of human experience employed to establish the prestige of a community’s way of life (Spinks, 2003).

Nietzsche recognized Buddhism as the  ‘most mature expression of life-negation’ | file photo
Nietzsche recognized Buddhism as the ‘most mature expression of life-negation’ | file photo

Nietzsche challenged the foundations of Christianity and traditional morality. He proclaimed himself as an “intellectual Nebuchadnezzar,” -one who, despite his hostility to religion, serves God’s purposes by the depth of his ideas.  Although he was critical of a number of religions Nietzsche saw Buddhism as a more realistic religion. According to Antoine Panaïoti the author of Nietzsche and Buddhist Philosophy points out that there is a subtle relationship between Nietzsche’s Philosophy and Buddhism.

Nietzsche mainly read Buddhism through Arthur Schopenhauer.  Schopenhauer was influenced by Indian religious texts and later claimed that Buddhism was the “best of all possible religions. Schopenhauer’s ethics which are based on universal compassion for the suffering of others can be compared to the Buddhist ethics of Karuṇā.Schopenhauer’s “The World as Will and Representation” made profound impact on Nietzsche.

Nietzsche recognized Buddhism as the “most mature expression of life-negation. Nietzsche called Buddha “that profound physiologist” and his teachings less areligion than a “kind of hygiene. Also he stated that Buddhism is a religion for the closing, over wearied stages of civilization.

Buddhism and Nietzschean philosophy do not deny that the world is characterized by impermanence and illusion. Nietzsche declared the death of God. Nietzsche’s credo “God is dead” served as a declaration for the nineteenth century, it became a theological diagnosis. He recognised Buddhism as an atheist religion. As described by Nietzschegoal of life should be to find one’s self. True maturity means discovering or creating an identity for one’s self. Overcoming feelings of guilt is an important step to mental health.As a human centered religion Buddhism does not deny these ideas.

Buddhism and Nietzschean philosophy saw emptiness in the human condition. At the center of existence there is a void. This void is the result of the insubstantial nature of life, and the aggregates (Ratanakul, 2004).According to Buddhist philosophy emptiness (Śūnyatā) is a realized achievement.Nietzsche accepthed the Buddhist philosopherNagarjuna’s (ca. A.D. 150- 250) concept of śūnyatā, or “emptiness,”
The Buddha identified craving (tanha) as the cause of suffering. Nietzsche clearly rails against the pursuit of pleasure where pleasure is understood as a particular sensation marked by the absence of any pain or discomfort. He, for instance, describes Epicurus, who conceived of pleasure (ataraxia) as the absence of all physical and mental discomfort, as “representing a state in which one is neither sick nor well, neither alive nor dead.For Nietzsche, pleasure cannot be divorced from pain, rather, they are “twins” (Urstad, 2010).
The Buddha stated that “Life is Suffering”. In Buddhism the word suffering (dukkha) has a deep philosophical and existential meaning. In the Buddhist perspective life is characterized by three important traits: conditionality (cause and effect), impermanence, and insubstantiality. Everything is impermanent and changeable therefore suffering exists. It is a universal phenomenon. Schopenhauer’s view that “suffering is the direct and immediate object of life.We are ironically attached to suffering Nietzsche once stated. Both Nietzsche and the Buddhists take the view that suffering and happiness are inextricably linked (Priest, 2007).

Nietzsche’s first book, The Birth of Tragedy out of the Spirit of Music, first published in German in 1872, occupies a curious position in the development of his thought (Spinks, 2003).  In The Birth of Tragedy, Friedrich Nietzsche celebrated the dueling forces of reason and emotion as personified by the ancient Greek gods Apollo and Dionysus. In Greek mythology, Apollo and Dionysus are both sons of Zeus. Apollo is the god of reason and the rational, while Dionysus is the god of the irrational and chaos.The Birth of Tragedy, Nietzschebegan to grapple with the “horror of individual existence.

In his work the Gay Science (first published in 1882) Nietzsche posed a question:  Has existence any meaning at all? In The Gay Science, Nietzsche experiments with the notion of power (Kaufmann, 1974). In Buddhism, the primary purpose of life is to end suffering and it has become the central meaning.

Nietzsche’s Zarathustra and theBuddhist bodhisattva concept have some similarities. Zarathustra left his home and the lake and went into the mountains.and has found contentment and enlightenment during his time alone.During this time period Zarathustra has been transformed. Zarathustra advocates a self-asserting individualism. Nietzsche’s prophet Zarathustra is intended to be a model for the modern mind, one free of superstitions inflicted by antiquated religious dogma.

Nietzsche claimed that Jesus’ death on the cross symblized the beginnings of a “Buddhistic peace movement He praised Buddhism for setting out to treat ‘suffering’as opposed to ‘sin. Nietzsche wrote that knowledge and strength are greater virtues than humility and submission. However he saw nihilism associated with Buddhism. Nietzsche stated that the Buddhism contains nihilistic” belief system. Nietzsche’s concept such as will to power do not harmonize with Buddhism. In addition Nietzsche accepted Schopenhauer’s depiction of the will to live and the need to overcome the animalistic tendencies inherent in the instincts.

The Will to Power Nietzsche describes nihilism as ‘ambiguous’ in that it can be symptomatic of either strength or weakness. Nietzsche claims that nihilism is a necessary step in the transition to a revaluation of all values. Passive nihilism is characterised by a weak will, and active nihilism by a strong will. Nietzsche emphasises that nihilism is merely a means to an end, and not an end in itself (VeredArnon).According to Nietzschea nihilist is a man who judges that the real world ought not to be, and that the world as it ought to be does not exist.

Elman (1983) stated that the accusation that Buddhism is pessimistic and nihilistic has been made since Europeans-first came into contact with India. He further states that Max Miiller made this a principal theme in his studies of Buddhism, and this view is still widely held today.

Moad (2004) pointed out that Nietzsche’s interpretation of Buddhism as a life-negating philosophy that seeks to escape an existence dominated by suffering. According to Nietzsche, Buddhism can be described as an effort, through restraint from action, to escape suffering and pass into absolute non-existence.both Nietzsche and Schopenhauer greatly misunderstood Buddhism by interpreting Nirvana as non-existence.

In the Pali canon, the two most famous descriptions of Nirvana both refer to “the unborn,” where “neither this world nor the other, nor coming, going or standing, neither death nor birth, nor sense-objects are to be found.Nirvana, however, cannot be described as existing, not existing, both existing and not, or neither existing nor not.

Nirvana for the Buddhist is not an escape from the world, as western commentators on Nietzsche have continued to argue. In order to make it possible to experience Nirvma, one begins with an investigation into the suffering inherent in life, but the quest does not end with this important insight. The experience of Nirvma is not based on a question of pessimism or optimism. One overcomes pleasure and pain, pessimism and optimism, before beginning a mindful examination of one’s self and reality as perceived by the self. Therefore Nietzsche, as well as Schopenhauer, entertained inaccurate views of Buddhism (Elman, 1983).

Friedrich Nietzsche could not identify the main essences Buddhism and also he missed the humane part of the Christianity. At the end Nietzsche said :  There is perhaps nothing so admirable in Christianity and Buddhism as their art of teaching even the lowest to elevate themselves by piety to a seemingly higher order of things, and thereby to retain their satisfaction with the actual world in which they find it difficult enough to live – this very difficulty being necessary.

http://nation.lk/online/2015/08/08/nietzsche-on-buddhist-philosophy/

KARANLIĞA SIĞINAN RUHLAR KÖLELİĞE NASIL ALIŞTIRILIR?


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Mehmet Emin HAZRET

REJİMİN KÖLELİĞİNE ALIŞTIRILMIŞ ÇİN TOPLUMU

Kendini yönetilmeye muhtaç gören toplumlar, despot rejimler tahtının temelini oluşturan faktördür. Çin toplumu tarihten beri despot rejimlerin köleliğini kabullenmeye alışa gelmiş bir toplumdur. Çin felsefesinin atası  Kunfuçyüş’un teorisinin temelinde “uyum” yatmaktadır. Uyum,devlete uyum sağlamayı öğütlediği için tüm Çin hanedanlığı Kunfuçüş’ün “uyum” felsefesine hayatı önem vermişlerdir.Uyum şu 4 nokta ile ifade edilmektedir;  “1)Vatandaş, Hükümdarına itaat etmeli. 2) Genç, Yaşlıya itaat etmeli. 3)Kadın, Kocasına itaat etmeli.4)Çocuklar, Ana-babaya itaat etmeli.” “Uyum”un son 3 maddesi ilk maddesini örtmek içindir.Uyumun 1.maddesi her dönem,her krallık sürecinde gündemden düşmemiştir.Çin tarihi hakkında az-çok bilgisi olan her kes bu noktayı kavrayabilirler. Emir verme  kralın hakkıdır. Bireysel özgürlük ve arzularından gönüllü vaaz geçme pahasına Emri şartsız yerine getirmek  kölelerin karakterini oluşturan özelliktir. Bu tür bireylerden oluşan toplum köle ruhlu toplumdur. “Uyum” aslında köleliğe uyum sağlamaktır.

Köle özgürlükten vaaz geçmiş veya özgürlük anlayışına hiç sahip olmayan evcil hayvan türüdür.Köleler ancak ineklerin otlayabilecek,doğurabilecek özgürlüğü kadar  özgürlüğe sahiptirler.Çin toplumu uzun tarihi süreç içinde,kafese kapatılan aslan gibi demir parmaklara kendini vura-vura sonunda umudu kırılmış,kafese alışmış ve kafesten hoşlanacak duruma getirilmiştir.Çin dini felsefesindeki “uyum”un başarısı bu olmuştur.

“Uyum”a alıştırılan Çin toplumu, sert ve baskıcı rejimlerden hep hoşlanmıştır.Çin tarihi boyunca demir yumruklu yönetim ve Diktatörler her zaman halkın kalbinde saygınlık kazanmıştır. Ülkeye demokrasi ve özgürlük getirmek isteyen yönetimler ise halk tarafından beceriksizlikle suçlanmış ve anarşistler, fırsatçılar tarafından devrilmiştir. Mesela,Mançur İmparatorluğu batı demokrasisini ülkesine getirmek için tam gaz reform programı uygularken devrilmiştir.1911.Tarihinde Çin’de ilk cumhuriyet rejiminin kurucusu Sunyatsin Çin’de hüküm süren 2 bin yıllık imparatorluk rejimini yıkmış, yeni cumhuriyet kurmuştur.Hayatının büyük bir kısmını Amerika’da eğitim ve araştırma ile geçiren milliyetçi lider Sunyatsın  batı demokrasisini getiriyim derken,Mançur imparatorluğunun eski generali  Yuan şikey tarafından görevinden uzaklaştırılmıştır.Milliyetçi Çin (gomintang) hakimiyeti 1930-40.yıllarda Çine batı tarzı hukuk düzeni yerleştirmeye çalışırken,Çin toplumuna özgürlük sunarken,Çin Komünistleri tarafından devrilmiştir. 65 Senedir demir yumruk ile yönetilen Çin toplumu Mao zedung’u yaşayan ilah olarak görmüş, Mao sonrası Çin komünist parti yönetiminin tüm hukuk dışı siyasi  baskı,yolsuzluk,rüşvet üzerine kurulan düzenin kölesi olmaya razı olduğunu kanıtlamıştır. Hatta toplum boyunduruğuna aşk öküzü arındıracak kadar zulümden hoşlanacak milli psikolojiyi benimsemiştir.

Bugün 1.35 milyar nüfuslu Çin’de kimseden korkmadan düşünebilecek,konuşabilecek, hareket edebilecek özgür tek bir kişi vardır; O Çin ÇKP genel sekreteri,Çin ordusunun baş komutanı,Çin devlet başkanı görevini yürütmekte olan Şi jin peng’dir. Toplum sadece onun sözünü tekrarlamakla, onun davranış biçimini taklit etmekle elindeki ekmeği garantiye alabilmektedir.

1911.den önceki Mançur İmparatorluğu döneminde Çin’de 100 den fazla ulusal özel gazete ve dergi varken, bugün bir tek özel gazete,dergi veya TV kanalı bulunmamaktadır. Tarih boyunca demokrasi ve özgürlüğün tadını tatma fırsatı bulamayan bugünkü Çin toplumu ise özgürlüğü değil, refahı tercih ettiğini kanıtlamıştır. Çünkü devlete “uyum”, “itaat” Kunfuçyüş dininin temelini oluşturmaktadır ve kökü 2000 yıl gerilere uzanmaktadır.

İŞGAL ALTINDAKİ UYGUR TOPLUMU NASIL KÖLENİN KÖLESİNE DÖNÜŞTÜRÜLDÜ?

Uygurlar etnik toplum olarak İslam dinine inanmaktadır. İslam kültürüne , Kuran talimatlarına göre zulme direnme karakterine ve tarihi geçmişe sahiptirler. Özgürlük, adalet arayışı gelenek ve kültürünün bir parçasına dönüşmüş bir toplumdur. Ancak, bir yarım asır gibi bir zaman dilimi içinde Çin esaretinde yaşadığı için, Uygur toplumunun içsel yapısı, milli karakteri ve davranış biçimi büyük bir erozyona uğratılmıştır.  Uygur toplumu Çinliler gibi, işgalcı devletin kaba gücüne itaat etmeye, dini ve milli zulümü hoş görü ile karşılamaya alıştırılmıştır. Toplumun büyük bir kısmı sevgiden değil, korkudan,merhametten değil,şiddetten, yasadan değil,kaba kuvvetten anlayan duruma getirilmiştir. Asırlık süreç içinde Sömürücü milletin zalim yönetimine sadece boyun eğmeyi milli kader olarak görmek, Uygur toplumunda genel bir durum haline gelmiştir.Bu yüzden Çine uşaklık yapan milli hainler her zaman saygı görmüş,kendisi ve çevresi refah içinde yaşamıştır.Kendi toplumu içinde  dokunulmazlık kazanmıştır.Çin yönetimi tarafında acımasız ve öldürücü darbeye maruz kalan  Bağımsızlık liderleri ve Özgürlük savaşçıları ise toplumdan tecrit edilmiş, mülküne el konulmuş,kendileri ve aileleri zarar görmüştür. Şan ve şereflerine leke sürülmüş, onurları kırılmıştır. Vatan için o vatanda şehit olan kahraman vatan evlatlarının  çoğunun kabirlerinin vatan topraklarının neresinde olduğu bile bilinmemektedir.Doğu Türkistan’ın bağımsızlığı, Uygur toplumunun özgürlüğü için canını feda eden kahramanların geride kalan çoluk-çocuk,eş-akrabaları toplumun şefkatine  kavuşamamıştır.

1900.lerde  Munçur imparatorluğu tarafından cezalandırılıp Doğu Türkistan’a sürgüne gönderilen adı suçlu afyon bağımlısı eşkıya mafuşing 1913.tarihinde komul isyanının lideri  genç komutan Tümür halife önünde kendinin Müslüman olduğunu ileri sürerek kuran tutup ant içmek sureti ile,Tümür halife’yi Urumçiye gelip Çinlilerle anlaşma yapmaya ikna etmiştir.Bağımsızlık için savaşan kahraman lider Urumçide şehit edilmiştir. Urumçide Çinli yöneticilerin beğenini kazanan  Mafushing 1914.Başında kaşgara vali (titey) tayın edilir. Mafuşing Aksu,Kaşgar,Hoten dahil 3 milyon civarında Müslüman Uygur nüfusa sahip olan bölgeyi 500 Çin askeri ile tam 10  sene kontrolünde tutmuştur.500 Askeri Urumçiye 5000 olarak gösterip bütçeden para almış,güney 3 vilayetten “bakmam gereken 15000 askerin var”diye halktan zorla para toplatmıştır. O tarihlerde her gün Kaşgar şehrine çevre köylerden eşeklerine odun yükleyip odun satmaya gelen 20-30 bin civarında Uygur oduncu bulunmaktadır. Her oduncu elindeki kamçı ile Çinli askerleri sırası ile birerden dövüp geçselerdi Kaşgarda Çinli kalmaz,millet kendiliğinden özgürlüğüne kavuşmuş olurdu.Cuma günleri Kaşgar İtgar camiye Cuma namazı kılmaya gelen kalabalık kitle namazdan sonra valiliğe yürüselerdi, iki saat için tek bir canlı Çin asker ve memuru kalmazdı.Maalesef durum tam tersi oldu.image1

Ma Fuşing Kaşgarda vali iken,Kaşgardaki gerici Uygur din otoriteler tarafından zorla  afyonkeş Çinliye nikahlanan Müslüman Uygur eşlerinden biri olan Anarkız ve iki çocuğu ile. (Fotoğrafı İsveçli Misyonerler Kaşgarda çekmiştir.)

Eşkıya Ma valilik yapan 10 sene içinde çok sayıda Uygur’u ölüme çarptırmış, bir çokların kolunu kesmiş,Uygur kızlarına tecavüz etmiş,hazinesini Uygurların altın – gümüşleri ile,haremlerini Uygur kızları ile doldurmuştur. Bunların hepsini Uygur din adamlarından fetva  alarak yapmıştır. İnsan nasıl olur da canlı gölgeye, dönüşür? Mafuşing Uygurları “konuşan iki ayaklı hayvan türü” diye tarif etmiştir. Türklerin en kadim soyu ve İslami ilk kabul eden Türk kavmi olan Uygurlar nasıl oldu da “iki ayaklı hayvan türü” hakaretine maruz kalacak kadar duruma düştüler? O tarihlerde, Uygurların ruhu uyuşturulmuştur. İslam ise din olmaktan çıkarılıp, Çin yönetiminin Müslüman halkın boynuna boyunduruk olarak takılmıştır. Kuran sadece kabir başında, mevlitlerde,cenaze çıkan evlerde okunacak kitap olarak görülmüştür.Din ve yetki şahsı çıkar aracına dönüşmüştür. Hakikati söyleyenler, milletin özgürlüğü için öne çıkanlar,toplumu aydınlatmak için kuranı-kerimden ibaret gerçek ışığı toplumla paylaşmak isteyenler “dinsiz”, “cedit”, “ asi”, “dehri” ilan edilerek toplumdan dışlanmış,Çin hepishanelerine gönderilmiştir.Böylelikle, iyi bir yaşam arzusu,özgürlük düşüncesi insanların beyninden silinmiştir.O dönemin Uygur toplumunun davranışları ve kararları kendine ait olmamıştır. Kendine ait olmasını düşünebilecek bilinci bile kaybetmiştir. Uygurlar sürü gibi yönetilmiştir. Uygur toplumu Çin istilası altına girdiği tarihten itibaren Çinliler tarafından  insan olarak görülmemiştir. Korku ve güçsüzlük duygusu Uygur toplumunu esir almıştır.

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Çinli Afyon bağımlısı Ma fuşing Kaşgar valisi iken el ve ayağı kesilen Uygurlardan bir kare.

Zalim Ma fuşıng Uygurlar tarafından devrilmemiştir. Aksine Uygur toplumunun isyanından korkan Urumçideki Çinli diktatör Yang zengshing,Aksu üçturfan nahiyesinin askeri komutanı Ma şavu’yu mayıs 1924.tarihinde 7-8 yüz kişilik sınır muhafız ordusu ile Kaşgara göndererek Mafuşing’i ele geçirmiş ve kurşuna dizerek idam ettirmiştir. Kaşgarda Uygur toplumuna, kafir ve zalim yang “halkı zulümden kurtarıcı” olarak gösterilmiş ve  teşekkürlerini ifade etmek için, onun için camilerde topluca dua ettirilmiştir.

Düşünceden mahrum, akli körelmiş, yiyip-içen,çocuk yapan ve çocuklarını kendi sürülerine katmaktan başka bir şey bilmeyen insanlar topluluğunun yaratılmasında Uygur  din adamları ve Uygur beğ adındaki yerli yöneticiler gönüllü rol almıştır.Çinin iç ve sahil kesimleri Hongkongtan Mançurya bölgesine kadar,hatta baş kent Pekin dahil  batılı ülkeler tarafından parsellenmiş,egemenliğini tamamen kaybetmiş bir Çinin sömürüsü olan Doğu Türkistan’da,bu toprakları dünyadan izole ederek yönetmeye çalışan afyon bağımlısı kurnaz birkaç Çinli kendi saraylarından dışarı çıkmaktan bile korkacak kadar aciz halde iken,yerli uşakları ile bu ülkeyi koyun süresinden daha kolay yönetmiş ve bu “becerileri”ni tarihe not olarak düşmüşlerdir.

Ağır hayat şartları, Sıkıntı ve acılarla yaşamaya alışmış toplum, özgürlük kavramını anlama zekasını kaybetmiş toplumdur. Onlar için özgürlük ulaşılmayacak uzaktaki bir ütopyadır.Onlar kendi yaşadığı hayatın trajedi ile dolu olduğunun farkında değiller.Neden Köleye köle düştüğünü,acılarının kaynağını sorgulamak ise yaşam boyu akıllarına gelmezler.

Özgürlük ve refaha susamış olmalarına karşın,onu elde etmek için hiçbir girişimde bulunmaması,onların nasıl yaşaması gerektiği  konusunda karar vericilerin kendileri olmamasında yatmaktadır. Hayat ne kadar çileli olursa da güzeldir,vaaz geçilmezdir.Bu yüzden özgürlüğünden mahrum bırakılan  Uygur toplumu hep özlem içinde yaşadı.Özlemlerini kalplerine gömdüler.Uzun süre bastırılan duygu çürümeye yüz tutar.İnsan daha fazla fiziki açlığını doyurmaya yönelir. Kötü rejim toplum ahlakını yozlaştırır. Çürümüş rejim ile yozlaşmış toplum karşılıklı panzehir olarak birlikte yaşamaya alışırlar. Bir toplum mücadele sonucu asaletten kurtulabilir, Ancak, asaletin toplum psikolojisinde bıraktığı cerahat’in iyileşmesi  en azından bir-iki kuşağın hayatına mal olacaktır.

İslam’a olan sahte bağlılık, Müslüman toplumları iki yüzlülüğe, dini yozlaşmaya sürüklemiştir. Ahlaki çöküntü laf üretmeyi bilgi, şark kurnazlığını zeka,enayiliği “mümin” sayan toplum yapısını oluşturmuştur.Kafir yönetim ve içimizdeki hain mollararın iş birliği,19-20.yüz yıl arası 200 yıla yakın bir süre Uygur kültür ve tarihini dondurmayı başarmıştır.Böylece Uygur toplumu,dünyayı değiştiren sanayi devrinden habersiz kalmıştır.

En acı verici olanı, 1913.tarihinde İttihat terakki tarafından İstnbuldan Doğu Türkistan’a gönderilen Rodoslu genç eğitimci Habibzade Ahmed Kemal’ın Doğu Türkistan’da kurduğu yeni eğitim okulları,Ahmet Kemal tarafından hazırlanan tarih,coğrafya,matematik dersler, yerli gerici din adamları tarafından “haram”, Ahmed Kemal’i “kafir”  olarak fetva vermeleridir.Bu durum yakın tarihimizdeki utanç verici bir lekedir.Uygur öğrenciler ve ebeveynlerin himayesini kazanan Ahmed Kemal’i ortadan kaldırmaya çaresiz kalan dini otorite Selim Molla ve Kaşgar Zenginlerinden  Ömer Ahunbayların  afyon bağımlısı Çinli Kaşgar valisi Ma fuşing’e “Türkiyeli Ahmed Kemal size karşı ihtilal hazırlığında”diye ihbar etmekle beraber, çok miktarda altın rüşvet vererek Ahmet Kemalı yakalatmışlardır.Doğu Türkistan ve Uygur sevdalısı, Uygur yeni eğitim tarihinin yaratıcısı olarak tarihe geçen Türk kardeşliğinin büyük ve unutulmaz abidelerinden biri olan Ahmed Kemal’ın kendi keleminden Kaşgar,Kuçar,Urumçi hapislerinde çektikleri zulümler,Urumçiden Şanghay’e Çin polislerince götürülen eziyetli uzun yolculuk ve sınır dışı edilme hatıralarını okuduğumda göz yaşlarımı tutamıyorum.Ahmed Kemal’ın 7 yıla yakın Doğu Türkistan’da  amansız mücadele,çile ve eziyet içinde geçen hayatı ve bu konuda yazdığı “Çin-Türkistan Hatıraları” kitabi, o bir devri incelememiz için eşsiz akademik değerdir. Ben esir Doğu Türkistan’ın bir ferdi olarak namazlarımda o büyük zat Ahmed Kemal’ın yüce ruhundan defalarca özür diledim.Onun ruhuna Allahtan mağfiret diledim. Ahmed Kemal ve onun Doğu Türkistandaki mücadele arkadaşları,öğrencilerinin facialı ölümleri hakkında yazının devamı olan “ Aydınlık Üzerinden Galip Gelen Cehalet” başlığı ile dönemin sosyal hayatını aydınlatacak yazımdan okuyabilirsiniz.

(Yazı devam edecektir)

http://www.uyghurnet.org/karanliga-siginan-ruhlar-kolelige-nasil-alistirilir/

Ulugh Ustaz Memtimin Bughra Hezretlirini Xatirleymiz!


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Milliy rohiyitimizning arxitektorlirining biri, yengi dewir dewletchilik iddiyemizning qurghuchisi, ulugh ustaz Memtimin Bughra hezretliri!

                                                       *****

Muhammad Amin Bughra also Muḥammad Amīn Bughra (1901–1965) (Uyghur: محمد أمين بۇغرا‎), Муххамад Эмин Бугро, Chinese: 穆罕默德·伊敏; pinyin:Mùhǎnmòdé·Yīmǐn (sometimes known by his Turkish name Mehmet Emin Bugra) was a Turkic Muslim leader, who planned to set up an independent state, the First East Turkestan Republic.

In the spring of 1937, rebellion again broke out in southern Sinkiang. A number of factors contributed to the outbreak. In an effort to appease the Turkic Muslims,Sheng Shicai had appointed a number of their non-secessionist leaders, includingKhoja Niyaz Hajji and Yulbars Khan, another leader of the Kumul uprising (February 20, 1931- November 30, 1931), to positions of influence in the provincial government, both in Di Hua (modern Ürümqi) and Kashgar.

At the same time, educational reforms, which attacked basic Islamic principles, and the atheistic propaganda program, which was being extended into the south, were further alienating the local population from Sheng’s administration. In KashgarMahmud Sijang, a wealthy Muslim, former leader of the Turpan uprising (1932), and one of Sheng’s appointees, became the focal point for opposition to the government.

Meanwhile, in Afghanistan under Sardar Mohammad Hashim Khan, Muhammad Amin Bughra, the exiled leader of theTurkish Islamic Republic of East Turkestan(TIRET, known as the first East Turkestan Republic), had approached theJapaneseambassador in 1935 with “a detailed plan proposing the establishment of an ‘Eastern Turkestan Republic’ under Japanese sponsorship, with munitions and finance to be supplied by Tokyo…. he suggested as the future leader of this proposed Central AsianManchukuo‘ none other than Mahmud Sijang (Mahmut Muhiti – commander of the 6th Uyghur Division, stationed in Kashgar as part of the Sinkiang provincial armed forces, since July 20, 1934), amongst the invitation at such political entity as Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere how active member.” However, this plan was aborted when Mahmud, fearful for his life, fled from Kashgar to India on April 2, 1937, after failed attempt ofSheng Shicai to disarm his troops by offering to ” modernize ” weapons of 6th Uyghur Division, prior which all old weapons of Division was to be given over to Urumchi representatives.

Mahmud’s flight sparked an uprising amongst his troops against provincial authorities.[2] Those who were pro-Soviet in any way were executed, and yet another independent Muslim administration was set up under leadership of the close associate of Mahmut Muhiti General Abduniyaz (killed in action in Yarkand on August 15, 1937), who adopted a command of troops, which enlisted about 4,000 soldiers and officers, consisted of 4 regiments, two of them being stationed in Kashgar, one in Yangihissar, one in Yarkand, also one brigade was stationed in Ustin Atush and one cavalry guard escadron in Kashgar. Sheng Shicai‘s provincial troops were defeated and routed by rebels in the fierce battle near city of Karashahr in July,1937, but eventually the uprising was quelled by Soviet troops (by the so-calledKyrgyz Brigade, about 5,000 troops, consisted of two tactical groups- Oshskayaand Narinskaya, each included 2 mountain regiments, one of Red Army and one ofNKVD, reinforced by armoured vehicles, tank battalion (21 BT-7) and aviation; there were unconfirmed reports of the use of chemical weapons by these intervention forces against rebels), invited by Sheng Shicai to intervene in the August, 1937.

In 1940, Muhammad Amin Bughra published the book Sharkiy Turkestan Tarihi (East Turkestan History) while in exile in Kashmir, which described the history of the region from ancient times to the present day, and contained an analysis of the reasons for the loss of its independence in the middle of the eighteenth century.

In 1940 Isa Yusuf Alptekin and Ma Fuliang who were sent by Chiang Kai-shek, visited Afghanistan and contacted Bughra, they asked him to come to Chongqing, the capital of the Kuomintang regime. Bughra was arrested by the British in 1942 for spying for Japan, and the Kuomintang arranged for Bughra’s release. He and Isa Yusuf worked as editors of Kuomintang Muslim publications. Under the Zhang Zhizhong regime in Xinjiang, he was provincial commissioner.[3]

Muhammad Amin Bughra and fellow Pan-Turkic Jadidist and East Turkestan Independence activist Masud Sabri rejected the Soviet imposition of the name “Uyghur people” upon the Turkic people of Xinjiang. They wanted instead the name “Turkic ethnicity” (Tujue zu in Chinese) to be applied to their people. Masud Sabri also viewed the Hui people as Muslim Han Chinese and separate from his own people.[4] The names “Türk” or “Türki” in particular were demanded by Bughra as the real name for his people. He slammed Sheng Shicai for his designation of Turkic Muslims into different ethnicities which could sow disunion among Turkic Muslims.[5]

In December, 1948, Muhammad Amin Bughra was appointed by Chiang Kai Shek as vice-chairman of the Sinkiang Government, led by Burhan Shahidi. He declared an alliance with the Chinese nationalists (Kuomintang) in order to gain autonomy for the Turkic people, under formal protection of the Republic of China, and necessity of quelling all communist forces in Sinkiang, including the Soviet backed Second East Turkestan Republic.

Upon the approach of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army to Sinkiang in September, 1949, Muhammad Amin Bughra fled to India, then to Turkey, where he joined another exiled Uyghur leader, Isa Yusuf Alptekin, former General Secretary of the National Assembly of TIRET or the First East Turkestan Republic. The latter Republic had existed a short time, from November 12, 1933, to February 6, 1934, and fell apart under attacks by the Hui armies of Ma Chung-ying, who was formally allied with the Kuomintang government in Nanking.

In 1954, Muhammad Amin Bughra and Isa Yusuf Alptekin went to Taiwan to try to persuade the Kuomintang government of the Republic of China of dropping its claims to Xinjiang. Their demand was rejected and Taiwan affirmed that it claimed Xinjiang as “an integral part of China”.[6]

Muhammad Amin Bughra died in exile in Turkey in 1965.

https://tengritagh.org/2015/06/18/muhemmed-imin-bughra-and-uyghur-rewelation/

Abduréhim Ötkür Wapatining 20- Yilliqi Xatirilinidu


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Yene 20 kündin kéyin istidatliq tetqiqatchi, mol– husulluq yazghuchi, méhnetkesh shair abduréhim tileshup ötkürning wapat bolghinigha del 20 yil bolidu. 20- esir uyghur edebiyatining serke qelemkeshlirining biri, proféssor hülya qasapoghlu chengelning tebiri boyiche ‹20 –esirning mehmud kashigherisi› hésablidighan ötkür ependi wapatining 20- yilliqining diyarimiz tewelikide xatirilinidighan yaki xatirilenmeydighanliqi heqqide hazirghiche birer melumatqa ige bolalmighanliqim ichimni achchiq qilmaqta.
Mushu yili 13 – féwralda abduréhim ötkür tetqiqatchisi, enqere ghazi uniwérsitéti edebiyat fakultétining proféssori hülya qasapoghlu chengel xanim «uyghur edebiyati we wapatining 20 – yilliqi munasiwiti bilen abduréhim tileshup ötkürni xatirilesh» dégen témida türkiyening enqere shehiride léksiye bergende, 2015- yili 5- öktebirde yeni ötkür ependi wapat bolghan künde abduréhim ötkür wapatining 20 – yilliqini xatirilesh munasiwiti bilen xelqaraliq ilmiy muhakime yighini ötküzidighanliqini qeyt qilghaniken. Ötkür ependige bolghan hörmitimning küchlüklükidin bolghan bolsa kérek, bu uchurni anglap intayin söyüngenidim. Bügün (yekshenbe) bu yighinning pilanlan’ghini boyiche ötküzülidighan yaki ötküzülmeydighanliqini bilish istikimning türtkiside hülya xanim bilen téléfon arqiliq alaqilishish we bu heqte qisqiche bolsimu sözlishish pursitige érishtim.
Hülya xanimning déyishiche, «uyghur edebiyati we wapatining 20 – yilliqi munasiwiti bilen abduréhim tileshup ötkürni xatirilesh»témiliq yighin hülya xanimning atisining wapati (allah makanini zhennet qilghay),apisining hélihem balnistta bolushi (késilige shipaliq tileymen) dek sewebler tüpeyli kéchiktürülüptu. Hülya xanim, «mushu yil chiqip kétishtin ilgiri dékabir aylirining axirlirida bolsimu – türkiyede ‹qutadghu bilik, uyghur edebiyati we abduréhim tileshup ötkür wapatining 20 – yilliqini xatirilesh› ilmiy muhakime yighini ötküzighanliqi» ni tekitlidi.
Men pütün hayatini abduréhim ötkür eserliri, ottura asiya we uyghur edebiyatigha béghishlighan bu méhnetkesh ustazgha éhtiramimni bildürimen shundaqla hemme ishlirigha utuq tileymen.
Hülya xanim ötkür ependi wapat bolghan 5 –öktebirde pilanlighan muhakime yighinini waqtida ötküzelmigenlikidin üküngen bolsimu, bélini qoyiwetmestin ‹yil axirighiche bolsimu ötküzimen› diwédi. Tesirlenmey turalmidim. Mendek qolidin qelbini yashqa chilap turup dua qilishtin bashqa ish kelmeydighanlarning qilalaydighan birla ishi bar, u bolsimu ötkürge zhanabi allahtin rehmet we meghpiret telep qilish, hülya xanimlargha hemmide utuq wesalametlik tileshtur.
Merhum shairimiz abduréhim ötkürning hayat hékayisi, küresh musapiliri hemmeylengeayan bolsimu, melumatlirimizni yéngilash yüzisidin töwendiki uchurlarnimu ilawe qilip qoydum:
1923-yili kumulda dunyagha kelgen.
1931-yili ailisi bilen birlikte gensugha ketken.
1936-yili ürümchige qaytip toluq otturigha kirgen.
1939-yili shinzhang uniwérsitétigha kirgen we rus edebiyati bilen tonoshushqa bashlighan.
1939,1940- yillarda edebiyat –senet saheside méwe bérishke bashlighan.
1942-yili uniwérsitétni pütküzgen.
1942,1943- yili ‹iyul boranliri› dégendek shéirlirini yazghan.
1948-yili ‹tarim boyliri› namliq shéirlar toplimi élan qilin’ghan.
1985-yili iiz› romani neshir qilin’ghan.
1988-yili ‹ömür menzilliri› namliq shéirlar toplimi élan qilin’ghan.
1989-yili ‹oyghan’ghan zémin› namliq romanini neshir qildurghan.
1995- yili 5- öktebirde ürümchide wapat bolghan.(Autori:Aq-hun)

What People Around the World Dream About


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An atlas of the subconscious, from Tijuana to Reykjavik

“To be an artist is to live inside a lucid dream.” – New York, USARoc Morin
The first thing I learned is: Everybody flies.

Consider the surly taxi driver I met in Ukraine who, when asked what he dreamed of at night, responded, “I jump and then I fly—higher than the trees, higher than the trolley wires.”

“I think when I die,” he mused, “that’s what it’s going to be like.”

As an instructor in psychology at the City College of New York, I teach about the power of the subconscious, whose hidden cognition comprises the vast majorityof brain activity. Increasingly, research is confirming that we humans are almost entirely subconscious beings, largely oblivious to the mind’s extensive inner workings. Dreams are one of the few exceptions.

I’ve always had an active dream life (just recently, I sent a herd of buffalo rampaging through a deserted Times Square, and performed psychic surgery on a thousand-chambered heart). Curious whether others had similar experiences, I started the World Dream Atlas project, a Facebook page of dreams gathered on my off hours while traveling as a journalist. Over the last 10 months, I’ve collected dreams from hundreds of people in 17 countries.

In class, I teach from a scientific perspective—everything from Freud’s interpretation of dreams as encrypted “emotional and intellectual trains of thought” to Jie Zhang’s theory of dreams as a byproduct of memory-encoding. Each paradigm is different, but most ignore the innate power of dreams. Dreams are typically regarded as part of a subordinate reality that only becomes significant if it can be translated into something rational. But when dreams are experienced on their own terms, they offer a glimpse of how expansive our minds can be outside the strictures of physical reality. They remind us that some of our most meaningful and transformative experiences are, by nature, irrational. Since most academic research on dreams is generated in the West, I ventured overseas for a fuller understanding of that potential.

I have found that, across cultures, dreams often entail a return to mysticism or the divine, and allow people to engage in magical thinking without stigma. But I’ve noticed population-specific trends as well. Violent nightmares are common in the gang-ridden border towns of Mexico and the war zone of eastern Ukraine. Scenes of nuclear war still haunt the “duck-and-cover” generation in both the East and the West. Blessings by gods and goddesses are frequently reported in heavily religious India, whereas in more secular Western populations, those same functions are often performed by celebrities. I’m not the first to document the link between culture and dream content. In one study, the dreams of Palestinian children in violent areas were found to feature more aggression and persecution than those of Palestinian children living in peaceful areas; in another, African American women were shown to have more dreams in which they are victims of circumstance or fate than Mexican American or Anglo American women.

I’ve received my share of rude rebuffs, as well as a few heartbroken looks from people who mistook me for Humans of New York. Still, the most common reaction to my elevator pitch is a smile. People are more open than I ever imagined; it amazes me that I can walk up to someone I’ve never met before and, in a matter of minutes, be talking to them about some of their deepest and most personal reflections, or laughing like old friends.

“I’ve always wanted to go to America. Recently, I dreamed that I went there with my two sisters. We were having so much fun, but then we started fighting each other with pistols. There were many, many guns there, and a lot of blood. America is a very beautiful country, but too many bomb blasts.” – Devpur, India

“I gave birth to a baby, and it was a sandwich! I put it in my backpack. Then suddenly I was like, ‘Oh! I forgot about my baby! I am a horrible mother!’” – Los Angeles, USA

“When I was 16, I dreamed that I won the lottery. Of course, the first thing I did was buy my high school. When my actual alarm clock went off, I kinda half woke up. I thought, ‘I don’t have to go to school, I own the place!’ Then, I rolled over and went back to sleep.” – Vancouver, Canada


Even when someone says no to me, the exchange can be enlightening.

“My dreams?” a woman in Latvia asked. “That’s something very private, isn’t it?”

“It’s OK,” I assured her. “I’m a professional, you see. So it’s rather like undressing for a doctor’s exam. Strictly business.”

“Actually,” she countered, “I’m a stripper, so I have no problem taking off my clothes. But my dreams? That’s very different.”


The first person I ever approached for the project was a cashier in Iceland named Heiða, who happened to be a berdreymin, a term Icelanders use to describe someone who sees the future in dreams. It was a gift, she explained, passed down through generations on her father’s side. Several people I’ve met have relayed experiences of perceived clairvoyance in dreams.

“My nightmares began in November [of 2013]. Nobody was thinking about war then. In my dreams though, I saw it. I was hiding from gunfire with my husband in the ruins of our home. I never believed in dreams before this.” – Semenivka, Ukraine

“My sister has always been ill. She has a genetic disease that kept her in the hospital for much of her life. My mom and my dad were told that if they had another baby, the baby would have a 90 percent chance of getting this disease. When my mom recognized that she was pregnant with me, they were scared that I would get this disease, and they were thinking maybe not to have me. Then my mom had a dream that a priest came up to her. The priest said, ‘You will have a completely healthy girl.’ When my mom woke up, she told my dad, ‘We will have this baby. She will be fine.’ And I am fine. I’m perfectly healthy.” – Berlin, Germany

“I often have dreams that come true. I can look at someone’s eyes and if there is a dark shadow in the eyes, I know that they will die within 24 hours. With earthquakes too, I can feel when they will come within 24 hours. I don’t understand it, but my sisters have the same sense too. I was told that my clan, which is the Raven-Koho clan, has this sense. When somebody dies, it’s up to the Raven-Kohos to comfort the families.” – Juneau, USA


Magical thinking is a common element in dreams throughout the world, and perhaps nowhere more so than in Iceland. In a nation where 54 percent of the population believes in elves, the line dividing reality and unreality can be elusive, as this dream from a man named Hermundur shows.

“I was staying in a room with no windows. It was pitch black inside. The darkness was so heavy, I could not breathe—like being in a coffin. Suddenly, I saw this small light [come] out of the door and [start] to float around. It came very close to me. Inside of this light was a tiny, tiny person. I was watching this light until I fell asleep.” – Reykjavik, Iceland


Hermundur speculated that the fairy he saw came to comfort him in his loneliness. Dream visitations by benevolent mystical beings seem to be archetypal, with personal belief and culture often determining what form the figures take.

“I see the Lord in my dreams. He comes as a bright light. A big angel covers me and my kids and 14 grandkids with his wings.” – Tijuana, Mexico

“I dreamed that I went to Switzerland and visited the graves of Charlie Chaplin and his wife, Oona. Charlie and Oona rose out of their graves. ‘Ashok,’ they said, ‘You’re doing good in this world.’ Then they embraced me, and I wept.” – Adipur, India

“I’m in love with the main singer from Camera Obscura: Tracyanne. She’s in a lot of my dreams. She doesn’t do much. She just kind of exists in my periphery, and grants me her approval.” – New York, USA


Such phantom visitations are perhaps most beneficial for those coping with the death of a loved one. I’m repeatedly told about visions of the dead and the positive effect they have on the grieving process. The encounters are often brief, and the apparitions impervious to touch or inaccessible in other ways. Still, the deceased usually appear content and vivacious. Most dreamers report a feeling of closure.

“A month after my wife died, she came to me in a dream. She was only there for two minutes. She looked very good, very healthy. She embraced me, and asked if I would take care of our two grandchildren. I promised that I would.” – Devpur, India

“In my last dream, I met my father who passed away some time ago. We used to fish together when I was a kid, and in the dream I wanted to ask him when we could go on one last fishing trip. I didn’t get to ask because the dream ended too fast. I had always wanted to go fishing with him one last time as an adult, but we never had the chance. Even though we didn’t go fishing in the dream, it was still very good to see him.” – Warsaw, Poland

“My mom passed away seven years ago. I had just heard about a study that ranked the happiest and most depressing cities in the U.S. The most depressing place to live was Detroit, and the happiest was Boulder, Colorado. Anyway, a few nights later, I had a dream that I was Skyping with my mom. I was crying because I hadn’t seen her in forever. I said, ‘Where have you been? I’ve missed you! I’ve been worried sick!’ And she looked at me, and she goes, ‘I’m in Boulder, Colorado.’” – New York, USA


Of course, death can also haunt sleep, as it often does for veterans, trauma victims, and the elderly.

“I am 103 years old, so I don’t sleep well. But when I do, I see the dead—dead bodies, known and unknown.” – Rajuri, India

“When I killed my first person, I couldn’t sleep for three days. He wasn’t very close. He was 40 meters away from me, but I saw how he died. In my dreams, I always see the fighting. My wife Oksana is a sniper. She also sees such dreams. Oksana wraps her arms around herself and curls up. She pushes into me, trying to get as close as she can. We both dream of our friends who were killed. In our dreams, they are still fighting alongside of us.” – Horlivka, Ukraine/Donetsk People’s Republic

“I’m a Vietnam veteran, and all we did was what you call ‘hit and run.’ I was a river raider down in the delta. Many times I went to sleep in that muddy water. I didn’t think I was coming back. After I came home, I used to just wake up at night thinking I was about to shoot somebody. I did a lot of killing. Kill and stack the bodies. That’s all we did.” – New Orleans, USA


Among the dreams I’ve encountered, some of the most fascinating have been those involving mystical states of consciousness, or a lucid manipulation of the dream space by the dreamer. They suggest an existential freedom far beyond that enjoyed in waking life.

“I entered a room of people watching a wall of TV monitors. They talked to me and answered my questions. I was so surprised that they had real personalities—they were independent of me. They explained that they travel in dreams. ‘You went too deep,’ they warned. ‘You shouldn’t be here very long.’” – Kiev, Ukraine

“I often dream that the Goddess Amba Ma is watching me. In the temple, in the home, she stands there silently. I know it’s her because she has many arms and her face looks just like her pictures. The first time she came, I was afraid. Now, when I see her I’m happy. Sometimes, I begin to shake and I can feel her enter my body.” – Ahmedabad, India

“Sometimes when I’m falling asleep, I have this strange feeling of being huge and tiny at the same time. I can best explain it as a grain of sand up against a gigantic boulder—and being both at once. You feel the smallness and the bigness at the same time; the smallness feels greater when it is up against the vastness of its opposing size, and the boulder’s bigness feels even more massive compared to the tininess of the grain of sand.” – Berlin, Germany


I have always found the surreal aesthetics of dreams appealing, but it took 10 months of collecting them to understand why. I used to think of their inherent mystery—of all mystery really—as a simple lack of information. Mystery was a vacuum to be filled by knowledge. I see things differently now. I believe that mystery is an active and substantial force in its own right.

“There’s just one dream that I remember from many, many years ago. I’d lose the magic if I told you, so I can’t. I can show you this tattoo though. The tattoo is part of it.” – Austin, USA

Qetli Qilinip Bolup Köydürwétilgen Ma’aripchi …


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1937-yili 5- ayning 4 – küni etigende , memtili ependi aditi boyiche somkisini élip uyushmigha baridu . Bu chaghda qeshqer shehiridin kéchilep yolgha chiqip , tang étishtin burun atushqa yitip kelgen qeshqer wilayetlik saqchi idarisining mu’awin bashliqi ubulqasim ademliri bilen memtili ependining kélishini kütüp turghan idi . Memtili ependi uyushmigha kirishi bilenla , ular memtili ependini qolgha alidu . Bu mudhish xewerni anglighan minglighan amma we oqutquchi – oqughuchilar yügürüshüp yolgha chiqidu . Ular saqchilarning qoligha koyza sélin’ghan memtili ependini bir sok – sok yalingach atqa mindürginiche arigha élip kétiwatqanliqini köridu . Buni körgen er ayallar ünsiz uh tartishidu . Oqughuchilar « ependim ! » dep waqirap , ün sélip yighliship kétidu . Yalingach at üstide mehbus süpitide olturghan memtili ependi oqutquchi- oqughuchilar we yurtdashliri bilen béshini lingishtip xoshlishidu . Saqchilar memtili ependini otturgha alghan péti toxtimay méngip , qumaltagh terepke kétip qalidu …
Memtili ependi udul qeshqer saqchi idarisige yalap apirilghandin kéyin , saqchi bashliqi qadir hajining aldigha élip kirilgen . Qadir haji memtili ependini körüp , körenglik bilen qaqaqlap külüp ketken …
Memtili ependi qeshqer wilayetlik saqchi idariside qisqa soraq qilin’ghandin kéyin , yawagh türmisige élip bérilip 14- kamérgha tenha solap qoyulghan … Memtili ependi özi yalghuz solan’ghan kamérning jenubi témigha atqa min’gen bir ademning resimini sizip astigha : « men1937-yil 5-ayning 4-küni seyshenbe bu yerge kirdim , méni naheq qolgha élishti » dep yézip qoyghan .
1937 – yili 5 – ayning 30 – küni seherde , qeshqer yawagh türmisige qamaqliq 300 din artuq siyasi mehbus türme hoylisigha yalap élip chiqilip , tutash oqqa tutulghandin kéyin , bénzin chéchip köydüriwétilgen . Qeshqer saqchi idarisining bashliqi qadir hajining bashqurishidiki bu türmini shu chaghda sowét itipaqining qeshqerge kirgüzgen qirghiz atliq qisimlirining tü’enjangi mewlanop üchyüzdek eskiri bilen saqlaytti .
1937 – yili 12 – ayda , shéng shisey omumen ilgiri tömür , osman , sabit damollam , maxosen we mehmut muhitigha egiship parakendichilik salghanlar birdek qolgha élinip tazlinidu , dep jakarlighan . Qeshqerde 5000kishi qolgha élin’ghan . Ular birdek « xa’in » dep jakarlan’ghan hemde mal- mülki musadire qilin’ghan . 12-ayning 17-küni qeshqer rayunida « xa’inlarning mal-mülkini éniqlash hey’iti » qurulghan . Shing shisey özining mustebit hakimyitini mustehkemlesh we sitalindin alghan qerzini qayturush üchün , mushu bahanida , shinjang miqyasida nurghun chong baylarni qolgha élip , ularning mal- mülkini musadire qilghan . Yene bir jehettin közge körün’gen emeldarlarni we ziyalilarni qirip tügetken .
Eyni yilliri yeken wilayetlik uyghur uyushmisining re’isi we yekenning hakimi qatarliq xizmetlerni ötigen abduréshit yüsüp ependining éytip birishiche , ( yawagh türmisini saqlighuchi) mewlanup , térisige sighmay hökürep yürgen zamanlirida , intayin qebih ishlarni sadir qilghan iken . U bir qétim , qurban héytida qattiq mes bolup qélip , dadqibay digen aghiynisi bilen adem öltürüshte besliship baqmaqchi bolup , bashqilargha buyrup türmidin 40 neper mehbusni élip chiqip , ularni ong- sol qilip qatar yatquzup , yénidin pichiqini chiqirip , bashqilargha körsitip turup : « men pichaqni bir qétimdin sürüsh bilen , bu ong tereptikilerning jénini tézlik bilen alalaymen , sol terepte yatquzulghanlarni dadqibay boghuzlisun » dep , jallatliq maharitini körsetkeniken … Shu zamanlardiki qanliq weqelerning hazir bar bolghan shahidliri mewlanopning qilmish-etmishlirini ghezep bilen hékaye qilishidu . Bundaq hikayilerni tarixchi ablimit ruzi manga köp qétim qaynap turup bayan qilip berdi .
Uyghur xelqining mushu esirdiki eng olugh ma’aripchisi , talantliq teshkilatchisi , ot yürek kompozitori we sha’iri , nami menggü ölmes oghli memtili ependi uyghur xelqi aldida qan – qerzge patqan , xelqni zar – zar qaqshatqan ashu mewlanop dégen jallatning qolida , 1937-yil 5 – ayning 30 – küni tang seherde étip tashlinip , arqidinla köydürüwétilgen .
Memtili ependi türmige qamalghandin kéyin 14- kamérning tamlirigha bir nechche parche shé’ir yézip qoyghan :
Nechche yil kezgen idim bu diyari ghurbetni ,
Körmigenidim mundaq azabu – oqubetni .
Aqiwet weten’ge kélip , qilip xelq üchün xizmet ,
Mukapat ornida aldim bu azari külpetni .

Taqitim taq boldi mundiki xelqning nidayidin ,
Qulaqlirim gas boldi kishenler sadayidin .
Gunahi ne iken bunda qamalghan newqiranlarning ?
Heqqe oyghuni yoqtur téngilghan shu gumanlarning .

Rohim ejep qisildi yalghuzluqta , tutqunda ,
Sa’etlirim ötmekte kishenlinip zulmette .
Yéshim ottuz alte yash , tashtin better qatti bash ,
Ada bolar oxshaymen bu xil qayghu – hesrette .

Memtili ependi qaynap turghan ghezeplik héssiyati bilen , kamér tamlirigha shé’irlarni yézip toshquziwetken :
Bulbullar tutqun boldi , yurtni bulghidi qagha ,
Kim bolsa wetenperwer bir kün ésilur dargha .

Bu qarangghu yillarda tapalmidim adalet ,
Adaletke intilsem qolgha aldi siyaset .

Xelqim üchün ilim – pen , tereqqiyat izdidim ,
Niyitim sap , dilim aq , ötküzmidim jinayet !

Qadir haji kirip keldi , yénida gundipay alte ,
Heqiqet ne ? Adalet ne ? Bilmeydu eqli bek kalte .

Kishen qisti séni tewpiq qilma zerriche peryad ,
Pida qil qanni sen emdi , béshinggha keldi bu ersat .

Urghup turghan issiq qan jismimda isiyan éter ,
Künde mushtumdek kések xet yézip tügep kéter .

Xudayim bilur balilirim qaldi dadu – peryadta ,
Dérikimni alalmay sersan bolup her yaqta .

El xa’ini , memtimin ichi qara munapiq ,
Hökümetke üstümdin xewer béripsen saxta .

« el xa’ini , memtimin ichi qara munapiq » digen misradiki memtimin 1930— 1940- yilliri qeshqer teweside shéng shisey we gomindang hakimyiti üchün ishpiyunluq qilip , ikki qolini nurghun xelqperwer oghlanlarning issiq qéni bilen boyiwalghan munapiq memtimin aq kirpik digen kishini körsitidu .

1937 – yil 5 – ayning 30 – küni seherde yawagh türmisidiki üch yüzdin artuq kishining oqqa tutulup köydürüwétilgenliki toghrisidiki bu mudhish xewer qeshqer shehrige nahayiti tézlik bilen taralghan . Shu chaghda , memtili( tewpiq ) ependining akisi nizamidin ependining on nechche yashliq oghli rishat qeshqer shehiride iken . Memtili ependi qolgha élin’ghandin kéyin , nizamidin ependi rishatni .., memtili ependige tamaq we kiyim – kéchek yetküzüp bérishke buyrughan . Shunga u shu küni etigende ornidin turup héyitkahgha kélip , kéchiche bolghan jengge a’it xewerlerni bilmekchi bolghan . Lékin uning bilgini « saqchilar yawagh türmisige ot qoyiwitip yéngi sheherge qéchip kétiptu » dégen shum xewer bolghan . Rishat hichnimige qarimay molla akisi ( memtili ependini shundaq ataydiken ) ning xewrini élish üchün yawagh türmisige kelgen . Qarisa bu yer qizil qiyametning özige aylan’ghan bolup , köyüp chüchüle bolup ketken jesetler hoylida , tamning tüwiliride , kamérlarning bosughisida döwiliship ketken . Rishat yügürgen péti memtili ependi yatqan kamérgha barghan . Shu chaghda , birsi uning mörisini tutqan , qarisa dadisi nizamidin ependi iken , yénida memtili ependining shagirti abdughupur qunaji , aghinisi abbas chongmu bille iken . Esli ular abduniyaz qisimlirining qeshqerge hujum bashlighanliqini anglap kéchilep yol yürüp qaq seherde qeshqerge yétip kelgeniken . Ular qeshqerge kélipla türmige ot qoyuwétilgenlikini anglighan , shuning bilen héch némige qarimastin bu yerge kelgen . Ular birlikte memtili ependining jesitini izdigen . Jesetler tonughusiz derijide köyüp ketken bolghachqa , ular bek izdep ketken . Kéyin rishat memtili ependining putidiki köymey qalghan karashnaway ayighini tonowalghan . U dadisigha : « men bu ayaghni téxi birnechche künning aldida ekilip bergenidim » dégen . Shuning bilen nizamidin ependi bilen abbas chong memtili ependining hem kichiklep , hem yéniklep ketken jesitini awaylap kötürüp köynek , chapanlirigha orap atqa artip , beshkéremge yétip kélip bir yéqin tunushiningkige chüshken . Ular qarangghu chüshkende mangmaqchi bolushqan . Rishatni bolsa at bilen awwal bérip mexpiy halda yerlik teyyarlitip turushqa buyrighan . Özliri jesetni taghargha sélip , atqa artip beshkéremning it yoli arqiliq kéchilep atushqa qarap yol alghan . Nizamidin ependi , abbas chong , abdughupur ücheylen üstige jeset artilghan atning yénida buquldap yighlap yash töküp mangghan .
1934 – yildin 1937 – yilghiche bolghan töt yil jeryanida jenggiwar izchilirini bashlap , ney – baranlarni yangritip , naxsha – marsh sadaliri bilen taghu – tashlarnimu lerzige sélip , qeshqer bilen atush ariliqidiki bu tar yolda nechche on qétim heywetlik seper qilghan , hem shu xasiyetlik seperliride minglighan – onminglighan kishilerning qelb közini yorutup , uyghur ma’arip tarixida misli körülmigen parlaq sehipilerni achqan bu ma’arip serkerdisi , bügünki künde köyüp chüchüla bolghan halette taghargha qachilinip , atning üstide qeshqer bilen atush ariliqidiki bu yolda eng axirqi sepirini bésip kétiwatatti . . .

Jahan’gha patmighan serke
Qazan’gha qandaq patqandu !
Qazan’gha patsa patqandu ,
Tuwaqni qandaq yapqandu ?

Memtili ependining jesiti el ayiqi bésiqqanda boyametke élip kélin’gen . Ular memtili ependining axiretlik ishlirini intayin mexpiy püttürgen , néme qiliwatqanliqini hetta nizamidinning ayali zorixan’ghimu oqturmighan .
Axiretlik pütkendin kéyin , sekkiz kishi nizamidin , abduraxman sha’ir , abbas beg ( 1936 – yilidin kéyin atushqa beg bolghan , yene bir ismi abbas chong ) , quwan sheyx , abdughupur qunaji ( téjenlik meripetperwer bay quwan hajimning oghli ) , rishat we memtili ependining yerlikini teyyarlighan ikki nimkar – tashmemet , igemberdiler aldirap merhumning namizini chüshürüp uni depne qélishqan . Éhtiyat yüzisidin hetta qebre üstige égizrek topa döwileshkimu jur’et qilalmighan .
Merhumni depne qilip bolghandin kéyin . Sekkizeylen nizamidinning öyige qaytip kélip , bu sirni ebediy saqlashqa , tuqquzinchi bir kishige bildürüp qoymasliqqa qesemyad qilishqan .
Memtili ependining türme tamlirigha yézip qoyghan shé’ir – qoshaqliri qandaq saqlinip qalghan ? Semer bayning oghli abduraxman semer memtili ependining ong’ériqtiki « oqutquchi terbiyilesh kursi » ning oqughuchisi idi ,.. « saqchilar yawagh türmisige ot qoyiwitip yéngi sheherge qéchip kétiptu » dégen shum xewerni anglighan abduraxman semer ustazining néme bolghanliqini bilish üchün , emet mexsum qatarliq birnechche sawaqdishini bashlap derhal qeshqerge yétip barghan . Ular yétip kelgende , türmining ichi bir qizil qiyametke aylan’ghan bolup , uruq – tuqqanlirining jesitini izdewatqan we tapqanlarning yigha – zari pelekni qaplighaniken . Abduraxman semer bashliq birnechcheylen memtili ependining jesitini izdigen . Ular izdep bir kamérgha kirip , tamda memtili ependining chalma bilen yazghan shé’irliri turghanliqini körgen . Ular puchurkisigha qarapla , memtili ependining shé’irliri ikenlikini jezim qilghandin kéyin , hemmini köchürüwalghan . Ular köchürüwalghan shé’irlar qiriq kuplit etrapصda bolup , bu shé’irlarni kéyin abduraxman semer yadliwalghan .
1937 – yil 5 – ayning 30 – küni keltürüp chiqirilghan bu mislisiz paji’ening mudhish xewiri bir – ikki kün ichide pütün qeshqer tewesige pur ketken . Bu xewer atushta keng tarqalghandin kéyin , memtili ependining balichilap béqiwalghan munewwer shagirti mir’ehmet séyit derhal dadisidin roxset élip , téjenlik sulayman digen bala bilen ikki éshekke minip qeshqerge qarap yol alghan . Ular qeshqerge yétip kelgendin kéyin , ésheklirini töshük derwazisining téshidiki bir saraygha qoyup , azraq tamaq yep yawagh türmisige yétip barghan . Ular türmige yétip barghanda , bu yer asasen jimiqqan bolup boran uchup turghaniken . Bu ikkisi barliq kamérlargha kirip axiri memtili ependi yatqan türmini tapqan . Ular töt tamgha ala qoymay yézilghan shé’irlarni xatirilirige bir – birlep köchürüwalghan . Ular bu kamérdin chiqip , yene bashqa kamérlarni aylan’ghan . Qarisa yene bir kamérdimu memtili ependining birnechche kuplét shé’iri yéziqliq turghan . Ular unimu köchürüwalghan .
Mir’ehmet siyit bilen sulayman türmining ishikini saqlaydighan gundipayning ayali bilen körüshüp , uning memtili ependige a’it ishlarni bilidighan – bilmeydighanliqini sorighan . Bu ayal bu ikkeylen’ge : « memtili ependini hemmidin burun ekelgen , awwal yalghuz kamérgha solighan , kéyin hisamidin ependi bilen bir kamérgha solidi . Bular memtili ependini bek tola soraq qildi , bek qiynidi . Héliqi mewlanbék ( mewlanopni démekchi ) dégen qirghiz bek tola soraq qilatti . Héliqi künimu memtili ependini ashu öz qoli bilen atti . Biz birnechche ayal étishwazliqta oq tégip kétishtin qorqup , balilirimizni élip bir öyge kiriwalghaniduq . Shu öyning dérizisidin , tang yuruqida bolghan ashu qizil qiyametni öz közimiz bilen körduq , dozaqning özi boldi , xuda bendisige undaq künni körsetmisun . Shu kündin bashlap éghizlirimgha qoqaq chiqip ketti . . . » dep sözlep bergen . Mir’ehmet siyit bilen sulayman ésheklirige minip atushqa qaytip kelgen . Mir’ehmet siyit shé’ir yéziwalghan depterni birersining körüp qélishidin qorqup , shé’irlarni yadqa éliwalghan . Memtili ependining öltürülgenlikini uqqan atush xelqi qoshaq qétip yighlighan :

Ishik aldida töt orus ,
Tötiliside papirus .
Ependimni öltürgen ,
Qadir haji ja orus .

Memtili ependi türmige élin’ghandin kéyin , uning ish – izlirigha warisliq qilip , pütkül atushni qaplighan ma’arip herikitini suslitip qoymasliq üchün , nizamidin ependi , abduraxman sha’ir , emet mexsum , tashaxunumning oghli liwahidin qari , abdughupur qunaji , izchilar sinipining oqughuchiliridin yar muhemmet , sultan mamut qatarliq onnechcheylen yighin échip « memtili ependi türmidin chiqquche , atush ma’aripini aqsitip qoymayli » dep , abduraxman sha’irni memtili ependining ornigha atush ma’aripigha mes’ul qilip békitken . Bu ay – bu künlerde , weziyet dawalghup turghachqa , xa’in – munapiqlarning , ishpiyun – chéqimchilarning küni tughulghan . Ularning xoriki ösup körenglep ketken . Memtili ependi qetli qilin’ghandin kéyin weziyet téximu jiddiyliship ketken . Eyni yilliri memtili ependining yénida meripet mesh’ilini kötürüp mangghan kishiler hökümet da’irilirining diqqet obyékti bolup qalghan …
Weziyet keskénleshkensiri gunahsiz kishiler ushtumtut kéchisi öyidin chaqirip élip chiqilip iz – déreksiz yoq qiliwétilgen . Uzun ötmey memtili ependining akisi nizamidin ependi , abbas chong mu’ellimlerdin abduraxman sha’ir , liwahidin qari , emet mexsum , abdughupur qunaji , izchilardin yar muhemmet qatarliqlar arqa – arqidin qolgha élinip ketken .ularning shu péti iz – dériki bolmighan .
Memtili ependi kötürgen meripet bayriqining etrapigha uyushqan talantliq oqutquchilar xelqperwer shexisler bir – birlep qolgha élin’ghandin kéyin , iz – déreksiz ghayip bolghan . Démek ular shéng shiseyning adet qilghan usuli bilen yoshurun ötürülgen .
1937 – yilining kéyinki yérimida , herqaysi bashlan’ghuch mekteplerdiki oqughuchilarning yéshi bir qeder chongraqliri mekteplerdin pütünley qoghlap chiqirilghan . Da’iriler oqughuchilarning eng kichiklirini élip qélip , ularni öz muddi’asi boyiche oqutqan . Oqutush programmilirimu bashqidin tüzülgen . Memtili ependi ögetken naxsha – marshlarni oqush cheklen’gen . Oqu – oqutush ishliri künséri chékin’gen we chakinilashqan .
Memtili ependining hazirghiche bizge melum bolghan birdinbir foto söriti qandaq saqlinip qalghan ?
Memtili ependi öltürülgendin kéyin , memtili ependining qeshqer qoghanliq bajisi obul hesen memtili ependining ayali melikizatni yéshigha toshmighan qizi edibe bilen qeshqerge élip ketken . Shu chaghda uning türkiyede oqighan chaghdiki oqughuchiliq kénishkisi memtili ependining miras qalghan nersiliri arisida saqlinip qalghan bolup , hazirqi söret shu kénishkigha chaplan’ghan iken . Melikizat xénim bu qimmetlik mirasni etiwarlap saqlighan . Epsuski memtili ependining paji’elik ölümi bilen kélip chiqqan judaliq hesritining derdige berdashliq bérelmigen melikizat xénim uzaq ötmey ölüp ketken . Qara yitim bolup qalghan yalghuz qizi edibeni qeshqer shehiridiki hammisi xeliche xénim béqip chong qilghan . Edibe boyigha yetkendin kéyin turmushluq bolup , töt perzentke ana bolghan . 1960 — 1970 -yilliri « xa’inning pushti » dep chetke qéqilip , edibe xénimning körmigen küni qalmighan . Shuning bilen qeshqerdin ghuljigha köchüp ketken . U hazir ghulja shehirining sherq mehelliside olturidu . Melikizat xénimdin miras qalghan süretni memtili ependining bajisi obul hesen saqlap , 1960 -yilliri memtili ependining akisi nizamidin ependining perzentlirige tapshurup béridu . Ular bu süretni qayta fotogha alghuzup , köpeytip yuyghuzup , uruq tuqqanlirigha birdin tarqitip béridu . Shu sürettin bir parchisi 1982 – yili qurban baratning shexsi adérsigha ewetip bérilidu . Qurban barat bu süretni « bulaq » jornilining 11 – sanida élan qilip , jama’et bilen yüz körüshtürdi . Shundin buyan bu süret köpligen kitap – zhornallarda élan qilindi.
Memtili ependi namliq bu kitapning apturliridin biri bolghan mir’ehmet séyit ependi 1923 – yili atushning meshhed kentide dunyagha kelgen . 1935 -yili memtili ependining « izchi etiriti » ge qobul qilin’ghan hem barabanchi bolghan . 1939- yili qeshqer sifen mektipige qobul qilinip , üch yil oqighan . Oqushni tamamlighandin kéyin ilgiri kéyin bolup qeshqer we atushta sen’etchi , oqutquchi we ilmi mudir bolghan . 1949 -yildin kiyin , atushta medeni- ma’arip xizmitini ishligen . 1959- yildin1987 – yilghiche , atush nahiyilik ( sheherlik ) medeniyet yurtida ishligen . Mir’ehmet siyit ependi 1981- yili tunji qétim « bulaq » mejmu’esining 3- sanida « sha’ir tewpiq » namliq maqalisini we « tewpiq shé’irliridin nemuniler » ni élan qilip memtili ependi we uning bir qisim shé’irliri heqqide qimmetlik melumat bergen . 1985 – yili « atush edebiyati » da « uyghur xelqining 30- yillardiki kompozitori memtili ependi » namliq maqalisini élan qilghan . U yene memtili ependining naxsha – marshliridin 40 nechchini retlep kitapche halitide neshirge teyyarlighan we adettiki ün’alghu tembur bilen oqup , ikki pilastinka qilip xatire qaldurghan . Mir’ehmet séyit ependi yene1987- yili « uyghur yéngi ma’aripining bayraqdari – memtili ependi » namliq eslimisini tamamlap neshirge tapshurghan . 1991 – yil 10 – ayning 18 -küni 68 yéshida alemdin ötken . Mir’ehmet séyit ependining « uyghur yéngi ma’aripining bayraqdari — memtili ependi » namliq eslimisi 1996 – yilighiche shinjang xelq radi’o istanisisidiki kompi’ozitor mihmanjan rozining qolida saqlinip turghan . Kéyin 1997 – yili 8 – ayda « mir’ehmet séyit , yalqun rozi , ablikim zurdun » larning namida resmi neshirdin chiqqan

Ölmigen Janda Ümütning Bar Yoqliqi Heqqideki Oylar


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Autori: Enver Toxti Bughda

Mediniyet, tertip türtkiside dunyagha köz achqan bolsa, erkinlik qoynida wayigha yetip, qalaymiqanchiliq tupeyli jan teslim kilidu.

Öz ichidin berbat bolmighan bir ulugh mediyetni bash egdürüsh esla mümkin emes.

Will Durant

1

Bir dostum manga baylar tizimlikini körsetti, ismimni uningdin zadi tapalmighach, özemning bir namrat  ikenlikimni ten aldim. shu dostum yene manga dunyadiki döletlerning tizimlikini berdi, öz dölitimning namini uningdin tapalmidim, chunki u yene bir dölet nami teripidin basturlup kétilgen idi. Dölitim namining xeritidin tépilmighinigha qarap, uni yoqitip qoyghanliqimni azap ichide tonup yettim. Dimek, méning dölitim bir meghlup bolghan dölet idi.

shu dostum yene dunyadiki tereqqi qilghan milletler tizimlikini berdi. Shunche izlepmu, uyghur namini undin tapalmidim. uyghurum bu tizimliktinmu öchurluptu.

Nam-nishanlirimizning ün-tünsiz ghayip bolishi, bizning axirqi hisapta jahan sehnisidin süpürlüp tashlinwatkinimizdin bashqa nerse emes.  Dewrimizgiche bolghan insanlar tereqqiyatining qanuniyiti shuki, tarixi sehnide put tirep turalmighanlar öz ornini ghaliplargha tedriji halda, öz rayisiz ötinip bergen we shuning bilen asta-asta untulup kétilgen. Riyalliq   muqam neghmiliridek hemishe qulaqqa yéqishlik emes, elwette. Mesilining nigizi zadi nede ?

2, what went wrong?

Bala chaghlirimda apam, “biz Honlarning ewladimiz,” dep hikaye qip biretti. Dimisimu biz Honlar ewladimiz, shunga tarihta aq-Hon dep nam alghandurmiz. 2010-yili Awghusta, oylimighan yérdin Wingiriyining Budapisht shehrige jaylashqan Bugac digen yéride orunlashturulghan Dunya Honlar Qurultiyigha ishtirak qip qaldim. üchbu qurultay dawamida, ejdatlirimiz bolmush Honlarning Asiya-Yawrupa qong qurupluqini boysundurush dawamidiki baturane simasini tunji ret öz közum bilen körgen boldum. Qurultay dawamida men bir Romaniyilik Hon bilen tonushup qaldim, u özining Qara-Hon ewlatliridin bolmush Ongur dep atilidighan  bir qowumdin ikenligini sözlep berdi.

Qurultaygha qatnashquchilar Yaponiye,Monghuliye,Türkiye, Kazakistan, özbekistan, Qirghizistan, Türkmenistan, Ezerbeyjan, Bolghariye, Wingiriye, Finlandiye, Sibiriye qatarliq dölet we rayonlardin kelgen idi. Men shundila ularning  bir ulusning oxshash bolmighan quwumliridin ikenlikini tonup yettim. Millet oqumining meydangha kélishi,esli bir yiltizdin bolmush bu quwumlarni,  bir-biri bilen anche köp baghlinishi yok xelqlerge aylandurup qoyghan idi. Xitay menbeliride qeyt qilinghan atalmish «shimaldiki az sanliq milletler»  esli Honlardur. Mongghul, shiwe, yapon,koriyan, sibiriyediki her qaysi yerlik qowumlar, türk, hindiyan we bizler esli bir yiltizdinmiz. Tarixta biz ortaq tilda sözliship, oxshash bir qoyash ilahigha choqunup, börini tutim qilip, kiyinishte  perqsiz ötken bir xelq iduq. Xitay menbeliride bizning «Hu» dep atilishimiz, saqalliq bolghinimizdin emes belki xitayche  «Hu» sözining «Hon»  gha ahangdash ikenligidin idi. Shundaq iken, tarixta shundaq shanliq sehipilerni achqanlarning ewladi bolmush bizlerge, bügünde zadi nime boldi ? nime seweptin biz yoqulush girdawigha kep kalduq ?

1) Küch bilen Jahan Sorash Dewrining Ahirlishishi

Ata bowilirimiz jahan kizip, istilah qilish bilen aldirash ötkechkimu qandak, öz tariximizni qézip chiqishqa toghra kelse, yenila Henzuche menbelerge murajet qilmay amalsizmiz.  Tarixni yézip qaldurush, melum menidin éyitqanda, bir milletning hayat sergüzeshtilirini, tejribe sawaqlirini, we shu dewrge ait bir qatar intayin muhim melumatlarni, kiyinkilerge qaldurup, milletning ewlatmu-ewlat yüksilishige polattin ul selish dimektur. Tarixni yezip qaldurush arqiliq jughlanghan tejribe-sawaqlar, nechche ewlat Honlarning ani tépishigha uchrap kelgen Henzulargha, Hunlargha taqabil turushning enggüshtirini ata qilghan. Bilimning küch ikenliki dewr telep qilmaydu elwette.

Hunlarni parchilash we ichki niza peyda qilishning ularni gumran qilishtiki achquchluq we birdin-bir ünümlik usul ikenligini tonup yetken Henzular, “yatlarni yatlar bilen jaylash” taktikisni tüzüp chiqip,  qébililer ara ihtilap peyda qilip, nétijide, özimizning göshini özimizning méyida qorup pishirdi. Büyük ejdadimiz bolmush Honlar shuning bilen tarih sehnisidin ghayib bolup,uning nami  tarihi pütüklerde kiyin “Ximaldiki azsanliq milletler” dep hatirlendi.

Henzular uzun muddetlik tarihi sawaqlargha asaslinip otlaq mediyet böshigide yitilgen Honlarning jengwazliqta mahir, émma  sadda, mijezining chus, bashqilargha asanla ishinip qalidighandek bir qatar ajizliqlirini bayqighan. Shundaqla, ularning yatlargha intayin shepqetsiz ikenlikini, öz-ara niza peyda bolup qalghanda bolsa, öz quwumlirinimu qilche ayap qoymaydighanliqini tonup yetken. “Yiraqtikiler bilen ehd tüzüp Yiqindikisige taqabil turush, yatlarni yatlarning qoli bilen jaylash” dek bir qatar taktilarni tüzüp chiqip, Honlarni axiri tarih sehnisidin süpürüp tashlighan. Térim mediniyiti ahiri köklem mediyiti üstidin ghalip kélip, eqil we küch sélishturmisida, eqilning tengdashsiz ikenligini namayend qilghan.  Köklem mediniyiti üstige qurulghan impériyiler shundin kéyin, ghulap chüshüp, ushshaq beglikler süpitidila mewjut bolup turush weziyiti shekillengen. 1865-yili mayda,Roslarning peqet 1900 kishilik eskiri küch we 12 top bilen 30,000 esker mudapiye qilip turghan, Tashkent shehrini istilah qilishi bolsa, köklem mediniyiti asasida yetilgen küch bilen jahan sorash dewrining tamamen axirlashqanliqini körsitip berdi.

2)    Hesetxorluq

Saghlam bir jemiyette, kishiler jemiyetke qoshqan töhpilirge qarap tartuqlinidu, we shu arqilik yüksek hörmetke sazawer bolidu. Yeni uning jemiyettiki abroyi ashidu. Dimek, hörmet japaliq ejirning bir ijtimayi miwisidur. Hörmetke érishishning we abroy tepishning asan yoli yoq, ter töküsh uninggha érishishning birdin-bir halal yoli bolsa kirek. eger bir jemiyette, hörmetke érishishning namuwapiq yollirighimu yishil chiraq yiqip bérilginide, hesetxorluqqa oxshash bir qatar ijtimayi mesillerning meydangha kélishige sewep bolidu. Netijide, hörmetke ejirsiz érishmekchi bolghanlar pütkül esli-weslini ishqa sélip, töhpekarlarni ghajap we yaki barliq mewjut rezil wastilarni qollinip, ularni eslidiki töhpikarlik ornidin tartip chüshürüp, shu arqiliq özini ulardin üstün körsitishke tirishidu.hich bolmighanda shu arqiliq bir xil rohi tengpungluqqa érishidu. Bundaq ijtimayi kisellik milletni chüshep, uni künsayin xorutup baridu, xalas.

3) Abroypereslik bilen Mes’uliyetsizlik

Ejirsiz hormet tepishqa intilish xaishi yéni abroypereslik bizge daimi hemra bolup, milliy rohimizdiki bir roshen xuniklik süpitide yamrap barmaqta. Bu xil ijtimayi kisellik yene bizlerni nelerge apirip tashlaydu bunisi namelum, emma egeshme kisellik süpitide bizni halak qilishqa küch qoshishi shühbisizdur. Abroypereslik bilen yéqqin tuqqanlardin bolmish mes’uliyetsizlik, eger dawamliq bir sorinda dexilsiz dewir sürelise, ular bir ijtimayi jemiyetni tamamen astin-üstün qiliwétish qudritige ige bolidu. Jemiyet tertiwi astin-üstün qiliwétilgen bir muhitta yashighuchi awam bara-bara aq-qara, heq-naheq, halal-haram we shuninggha ohshash bir qatar ijtimayi engüshterlerni dashqal kebi süpürüp tashlap, rohiyiti xunük, maddi ihtiyajni öz herketlendürgüch küchi qilghan, menpe’etni mewjutluq nishani qilghan bir uchum adimi mexluqqa aylinip qalidu. Özini ünümlik idare qilish imminut küchini yoqatqan bundaq xelq jismi mewjutluqtin bashqa, barliq nersisini, yeni milliy ghururini, tilini, özlikini, ejdatliri qan kéchip berpa qilghan ziminini amalsizliq ichide asta-asta yoqutup qoyidu. Bu jemiyette öz qowumi üchün barliqini atighanlar bilen uni mal ornida sétip hejligenler teng barawer mewjet bolup turalaydu. Gezi kelse, kiyinkisi tehi aldinqisining béshida yangaq chikipmu qoyidu. Uyghur jemiyiti bügün bundaq mes’uliyetsiz,adaletsiz jemiyet mizanigha öz qoli bilen palta urmisa, emdi ete purset yoq.

Eger yoqirda toxtilip ötken noxtilarda, mujimellik körülgen bolsa, töwende men béshimdin ötken bezi kechirmishlirimni siler bilen ortaqliship, qarashlirimni amal bar roshenleshtürüp bersem deymen. Qaysi yili dawa sépidiki serxiller ishtirak qilghan bir muhim yighinda, Lopnurda élip bérilghan atom sinighining radiyaksiye tesirining ziyankeshlikige uchrughuqilarning ehwali toghruluq bir xelqaraliq yighin orunlashturmaqchi bolghanliqimni we buning üchün xirajetke ihtiyajliq ikenligimni otturgha qoyghunumda, mes’ullirimiz derhal ipade bildürüp, hirajet üchün 2500 yuro ajritip béridighanliqini we Lopnur Atom sinighigha ait tetqiqatni teximu chongqurlashturushni kapaletlendürüsh üchün yene 1500 yuro qoshumche meblegh ajritip biridighanliqini bildürdi. Yighin ehlige qétilip menmu hayajanda heli bir haza chawak chaldim. Yighindin kiyin, ishlarni emilileshtürüshke tutunup, shu sahediki munasiwetlik mutehslerge tekliplerni séliwettim. Axirqi basquchluq xizmetlerni bir terep qilish dawamida, xirajet üchün bérilgen mebleghni emelileshtürüsh üchün, mes’ullirimiz bilen alaqe qilghinimda, buning üchün bérildighan pulning esli mewjut emeslikini bildim. Bu ishtin xewerdar bir dostum shundila manga, “Shu yighindiki quruq wedige ishinip bir ish orunlashturghan bolsang, resmi döt ikensen”, didi. Özemning dötligimni tonup yetkinimghu bir yaxshi ish boldi, emma manga elem qilghini, yéghingha teklip qilinghan mutehslerning, bolupmu bu sahede közge körüngen ikki mutehsning mendin alaqisini tamamen üzüp tashlishi boldi. Rehberlirimiz shu yighinda kütken chawaklirigha ikki qétim érishti, emma uyghur xelqi özliri üchün xelqara sehnide ikki éghiz lilla gep kilip bermekchi bolghanlardin ayrilip qaldi. Belkim ular, mening shu “aldamchiliqimgha” qarap oylap qalghan bolsa kirek, “Uyghurning bir eyipi bolmisa, bichare bolup qalamdu undaq” dep.

 

3, Milliy Burch we Mes’uliyet Tuyghusi

Burch diginimizni tar menidin qilip éyitqanda, shexsning jemiyetke bolghan mes’uliyet tuyghusi dep chushensek hata bolmisa kirek. Dimek yene melum menidin éyitqanda u jemiyettin “elish” bolmastin belkim “bérishtur” .  Ijtimayi burch yaki mes’uliyet éngi küchlük milletler, ezeldin bashqilargha qul bolup yashap baqqan emes, qunki bundaq jemiyette, milletning béshigha kelgen külpet, her bir awamning ortaq külpiti hisaplinidu we uningdin qutulush üchün nöwiti kelgende ular eng ali qorbanliq bérishtin bash tartmaydu. Ich aghritish yaki janabi Allagha sighinish bilenla milliy kirzis aldidiki mes’uliyettin qéchish ularning xaraktirige zittur.  Ularni  kirzis peytide herketlendürüsh üchün deb-debilik sözlerni qilish teximu hajetsiz. Milletning hayat-mamatlik peytide ular temtirep, titrep yaki tériqtek chéchilip yürmeyde. shunga bu tiptiki milletler öz teqdirini öz qolida tutup kelgen. Ular kishlik mizamida yashashni turmush keqürishtin, jemiyetke töhpe qoshushni jemiyettin menpe’et élishtin üstin koyidu, hem mushu asasta tiriship, yüksilip baridu. Muntizim, saghlam qimmet qarishi bar, Millet üchün ijabi töhpe qoshqanlar, töhpikarlar süpitide ewlatmu-ewlat medhiylense, milletni satqanlar öz jajisini yeydu.  Dimek, ularning qimmet qarishi üstige qurulghan,  küqlük heq-naheq qarishi, töhmethorlargha, hesethorlargha, abroypereslerge, hetta satqunlargha we bashqa jemiyet dashqallirigha keng sehne hazirlap, ularni öz qoynigha alalmaydu.

Birawning bichare bolup qélishida bir sewep bolghinidek, bir awamning asarette qélishidimu, choqum bir nechche xil sewep bar. Bu sewepler arisidiki ichki amilgha mayil sewepler, del bizning bügünki külpetke qélishimizdiki halqiliq seweplerdur. Ulargha texirsiz jeng ilan kilish, bizning bügünki eng ali burchimiz we nishanimizdur. Shundila, teqdirimizni peket özimiz hel qilalaymiz. Eksiche bolghanda, bizni bu kulpettin hechkim qutulduralmaydu.

Jemyitimizde hazir kishining yaxshi teriplirini mediyeleydighan  sözlükler zamandin qéliwatidu yaki esli menisidin chetnep kétiwatidu . Mesilen ” yuwash  adem” digen sözni alalyluq, esli uning mensi semimi, bashqilarni hörmetlaydighan we bashqilar teripin hörmetlinidighan ademni körsitetti. Emma biz hazir birsini yuwash désik, u bundaq teriplinishtin razi bolmisa kirek, qunki “yuwash” digenlikning hazirqi mensi köp qisim kishler nezirde,  “yarimas”, “döt” digendek sözler bilen menidash bop qaldi. “qabiliyetlik” digen terip sözimiz bolsa, munasiwet qilishqa usta, saman tigidin su manguzalaydghan, menpet uchun ziyankeshlik qélishtin yanmaydighan yaki birawgha qul salaydighan, tutam-tutamlap pul tapalaydighan kishler üchün ishlitildighan söz bolup qaldi. Jemyitimizde bu tiptiki kishlerge tördin orun bérilip, shalimiz iqip qalghiche mahtap harmaydighan bop kettuq.  Öz-ara ishench kunsayin yoqulup bériwatqan bügünki jemiyitimizde, qimmet qarshimizdiki gheyrilik we igiz-peslik kelturup chiqirwatqan shekilsiz ijtimayi ziyan ücün, biz qanchilik bedel töliduq we tölewatimiz ? Millitimizge öz hayishimiz bilen kelturwatqan ijtimayi ziyanlarni dollargha aylandurup körsitip béreleydighan jahan eyniki qolimizda bolghina,  andin biz bu mesilge jiddi qaramduq ?

4, Reqipler we Itipaqdashlar

Tokyoda orunlashturulghan, Dunya Uyghur Qurultiyining 2012-yilliq qurultiyining, échilish harpisida, bir muxbir telifon qilip mendin, “ DUQ wekilliri tokyodiki qehrimanlar qewristanliqini ziyaret qilamdu ?”  dep soridi. Uning sualigha jawaben men mundaq bir neqil keltürdüm. Eger bir bala igechaqisiz kalsa,öz halidin xewer alalmisa, u haman qol sunulghan terepke qarap mangidu. Bir muhtajliqta qalghan qowummu, bezi chaghlarda muhtajliqtiki baligha oxshap qalidu. U xeyrixahliq qilghuchilargha egishidu, emma shert qoyalmaydu.”

Muhtajliqqa chüshüp shert qoyalmasliq bizge nisbeten yéngiliq emes.

18-19- esirlerde biz, Ruslar we Engilislarning ottura asiyani talishish oyunlirining eng ali qorbani bolghan bolsaq, 20-21- esirlerde, musulman we öz qowumlirimizdin bolmush Qérindash döletlerning milliy menpeetlirining qurbani bop kelmektimiz. Uyghurlarning birdin-bir qanuni wekili, Dunya Uyghur Qurultiyi, musulman ellirige we türki tilliq ellerge chong kep qélip patmay, ahir Germaniyedin orun tapti. Bizge tamamen yat, nechche ming kilometir yiraqliqtiki bu el bizni öz koynigha aldiki, tam hoshnimiz, bir deryaning suyini ichip kéliwatkan qan-qirindashlirimiz, hajetmen bizlerge arqimizdin tigh urdi. Mekke-Medinidek büyük sheher jaylashqan, Seudi Dölitining tashqi ishlar ministiri hich uyalmastin, 5-iyul weqesidin kiyin, bayanat élan qilip, “Uyghurlar mömin musulmanlardin emes, undaq bolghan bolsa idi, partiyning gepini anglayti” dep jöylidi.  Gherp elliridin bashqa eller, Uyghurlarning ichinishliq ehwalini bilsimu bilmes, körsimu körmes boliwaldi. Biz bolsaq, tingirqash ichide bu achchiq riyalliqni hezim qilishqa tirishtuq hem tirishiwatimiz. Emma qénimizda bar birhil tenteklik, bizni yenila bu achchiq riyalliqqa köz yumushqa ündeydu. riyalliqqa köz yumush, birawni gheplet uyqusigha bashlaydu. Gheplet uyqusi uni sirtmaqqa bashlap barghan bilen, uning uyqugha kirish jeryani intayin shirin bolidu. Emdi yene shu shirin emma asan yolni tallisaq, rohimiz Uyghur tenining sirtmaqta sanggilap turghan gewdisini köridu, xalas.

  1. Bizge Chiqish Yoli Barmu ?

Bizde, “ölmigen janda ümüt bar” digen gep bar. Eger xatalashmisam, buning pelsepiwi menisi, eger ilgirki ongushsizliq séni halaket girdawigha bashlap barghinida, sanga yene bir purset bérilgen bolsa, ornungdin tik turup, eqil parasitingni ishqa selip, tejribe sawaqliringni yekünlep, öz  ongushsizliqliringinggha yüzlenginingde, uning üstidin ghalip kélish pursiting bar digenlik bolsa kirek.

 

Mana bügün biz teqdirimizning eng halqiliq peytide turuptimiz. Purset we tehdit burunkidekla teng mewjut bolup turuptu. Eger teqdirimizni özgertishte helqilghuch rol oynaydighan amillarni ikki qong bölekke bölsek. Birinchi böligi yenila öz küchimiz bilen royabqa chiqidighan amillar bolup, u meblegh, tashqi yardem we yaki shert-shara’it telep qilmaydu.  Yeni yighinchaqlap éytqanda, milliy ajizliqlirimizni tonush we uninghga jeng ilan qilish; milliy burch we mesuliyet ingimizni kücheytish;qimmet qarshimizni toghrilash;  bügünki dunyadiki ornimizni toghra tonush we milliy menpeetimizge has yol tutush. Yuqarqilarni peket we peqet öz tirishchanliqimiz bilen emilileshtüreleymiz. Amillarning yene biri böliki bolsa, tashqi seweplerge munasiwetlik amil bolup, menpe’et toqunishini merkez qilghan, dunya weziyitining siyasi,eskiriy we ixtisadiy jehetlerdiki özgürüshlirining milliy menpetimiz bilen bolghan baghlinishigha munasiwetlik amillarni körsitidu. Hazirqi ehwalimizda, biz bu amillargha biwaste tesir körsitelmeymiz. Emma kelgüside, milliy demokratik herkitimizning saghlam rawajlinishi we kölemlishishi,  choqum öz tesirini körsetrmey qalmaydu.

DNA from Neandertal Relative May Shake Up Human Family Tree


Ann is a contributing correspondent forScience

LONDON—In a remarkable technical feat, researchers have sequenced DNA from fossils in Spain that are about 300,000 to 400,000 years old and have found an ancestor—or close relative—of Neandertals. The nuclear DNA, which is the oldest ever sequenced from a member of the human family, may push back the date for the origins of the distinct ancestors of Neandertals and modern humans, according to a presentation here yesterday at the fifth annual meeting of the European Society for the study of human evolution.

Ever since researchers first discovered thousands of bones and teeth from 28 individuals in the mid-1990s from Sima de los Huesos (“pit of bones”), a cave in the Atapuerca Mountains of Spain, they had noted that the fossils looked a lot like primitive Neandertals. The Sima people, who lived before Neandertals, were thought to have emerged in Europe. Yet their teeth, jaws, and large nasal cavities were among the traits that closely resembled those of Neandertals, according to a team led by paleontologist Juan-Luis Arsuaga of the Complutense University of Madrid. As a result, his team classified the fossils as members of Homo heidelbergensis, a species that lived about 600,000 to 250,000 years ago in Europe, Africa, and Asia. Many researchers have thought H. heidelbergensis gave rise to Neandertals and perhaps also to our species,H. sapiens, in the past 400,000 years or so.

But in 2013, the Sima fossils’ identity suddenly became complicated when a study of the maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from one of the bones revealed that it did not resemble that of a Neandertal. Instead, it more closely matched the mtDNA of a Denisovan, an elusive type of extinct human discovered when its DNA was sequenced from a finger bone from Denisova Cave in Siberia. That finding was puzzling, prompting researchers to speculate that perhaps the Sima fossils had interbred with very early Denisovans or that the “Denisovan” mtDNA was the signature of an even more ancient hominin lineage, such as H. erectus. At the time, researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, who had obtained the mtDNA announced that they would try to sequence the nuclear DNA of the fossils to solve the mystery.

After 2 years of intense effort, paleogeneticist Matthias Meyer of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology has finally sequenced enough nuclear DNA from fossils of a tooth and a leg bone from the pit to solve the mystery. The task was especially challenging because the ancient DNA was degraded to short fragments, made up of as few as 25 to 40 single nucleotides. (Nucleotides—also known as base pairs—are the building blocks of DNA.) Although he and his colleagues did not sequence the entire genomes of the fossils, Meyer reported at the meeting that they did get 1 million to 2 million base pairs of ancient nuclear DNA.

They scanned this DNA for unique markers found only in Neandertals or Denisovans or modern humans, and found that the two Sima fossils shared far more alleles—different nucleotides at the same address in the genome—with Neandertals than Denisovans or modern humans. “Indeed, the Sima de los Huesos specimens are early Neandertals or related to early Neandertals,” suggesting that the split of Denisovans and Neandertals should be moved back in time, Meyer reported at the meeting.

Researchers at the meeting were impressed by this new breakthrough in ancient DNA research. “This has been the next frontier with ancient DNA,” says evolutionary biologist Greger Larson of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom.

The close affinity with Neandertals, but not with Denisovans or modern humans, suggests that the lineage leading to Neandertals was separate from other archaic humans earlier than most researchers have thought. That means that the ancestors of modern humans also had to split earlier than expected from the population that gave rise to Neandertals and Denisovans, who were more closely related to each other than they were to modern humans. (Although all three groups interbred at low levels after their evolutionary paths diverged—and such interbreeding may have been the source of the Denisovan mtDNA in the first Sima fossil whose DNA was sequenced.) Indeed, Meyer suggested in his talk that the ancestors of H. sapiens may have diverged from the branch leading to Neandertals and Denisovans as early as 550,000 to 765,000 years ago, although those results depend on different mutation rates in humans and are still unpublished.

That would mean that the ancestors of humans were already wandering down a solitary path apart from the other kinds of archaic humans on the planet 100,000 to 400,000 years earlier than expected. “It resolves one controversy—that they’re in the Neandertal clade,” says paleoanthropologist Chris Stringer of the Natural History Museum in London. “But it’s not all good news: From my point of view, it pushes back the origin of H. sapiens from the Neandertals and Denisovans.” The possibility that humans were a distinct group so early shakes up the human family tree, promising to lead to new debate about when and where the branches belong.

 http://news.sciencemag.org/archaeology/2015/09/dna-neandertal-relative-may-shake-human-family-tree?utm_source=facebook&utm_medium=social&utm_campaign=facebook

Posted in Archaeology, Evolution