William Shakespeare – The Tempest


Ganzheitlich Schlafen

Miranda_-_The_Tempest_JWW

John William Waterhouse, Miranda – The Tempest, 1916

Sei nicht furchtsam, die Insel ist voll von Geräuschen,
Tönen und anmutigen Melodien, was Freude bringt und nicht schmerzt.
Manchmal erklingen tausend klimpernde Instrumente
Über meinem Haupte – und manchmal hör’ ich Stimmen,
Die, wenn ich nach langem Schlaf erwachen würde,
Mich wieder schläfrig machten; dann deucht’s mir im Traume
Die Wolken täten sich auf und offenbarten Schätze,
Bereit, auf mich herab zu regnen, dass ich, wenn ich erwache,
Schrei’ und weine, weil ich wieder träumen möchte.

Be not afeard: the isle is full of noises,
Sounds and sweet airs, that give delight, and hurt not.
Sometimes a thousand twangling instruments
Will hum about mine ears; and sometimes voices,
That, if I then had wak’d after long sleep,
Will make me sleep again: and then, in dreaming,
The clouds methought would open and show riches
Ready to drop upon me; that, when…

View original post 11 more words

Abdurehim Otkur Sheirliri


Xejle, Xainlar Xejle

Abdurehim Ötkür
(1949- yili 8- yanwar, Ürümchi)

Xejle, xainlarey, xejle, bu elning malini xejle,
Yitishmey qalsa ger u, hem élip sen janini xejle.

Xénimgha osma dep xejle, bégimge tasma dep xejle,
Talan-tarajidin qalghan parge nanini hem xejle.

Déhqan’gha achquzup bozni, dukan’gha toqqutup bözni,
Sélip alwanni yüz qatlam, ichip sen qanini xejle.

Kölide béliqi köp dep, yer asti bayliqi köp dep,
Qedemde ming tépip xejle, échip sen kanini xejle.

Palani aqchidur-kökchi, bu Ötkürmu yaman doqchi,
Dep parchilap bu milletni, sétip wijdanini xejle.

///////////////////////////////////////////////

Yurtum Qaldi

Abdurehim Ötkür
(1947- yil 12- dékabir)

Men tughulup oynap ösken,
Qizil güldek baghlar qaldi,
Igiz-igiz xoy chirayliq,
Yaqut tashliq taghlar qaldi.

Bugha-maral pada-pada,
Oynap yürgen saylar qaldi,
Tagh baghrida oynap sekrep,
Botichaqlar taylar qaldi.

Igiz taghning yan baghrida,
Sular éqip her yanida,
Qushlar sayrap keng qoynida,
Yéshil-yéshil qirlar qaldi.

Egip-egip boylap aqqan,
Qoruq-qoruq oynap aqqan,
Aq kümüshtek palildighan,
Baldin tatliq sular qaldi.

Su boyida shildirliship,
Tazim bilen bash égiship,
Men yitimni uzitiship,
Leyli-mejnuntallar qaldi.

Jimjit kocha, ayding kéche,
Bulaq boylap, baghche-baghche,
Yultuz sanap tang atquche,
Oynap ötken chaghlar qaldi.

Chöller ara ghérip bashim,
Qurumaydu közde yashim,
Qiyametlik qerindashim —
Köyümchanim dostlar qaldi.

Qaldi yurtum, qaldi textim,
Qaldi méning hör jennitim,
Yawa qolida qara bextim,
Altun böshük yurtum qaldi.

/////////////////////////

Erla Bolsang Er Emes

Abdurehim Otkür

Gülla bolsang gül emes, güldek puraqi bolmisa,
Gepla bolsa gep emes, mezmun turaqi bolmisa.

Ikki putlap mangimish éyiqmu bezen tik bolup,
Erla bolsang er emes, adem siyaqi bolmisa.

Ademni adem etken uning hösni emes,
Hösni bir süret irur, dilning chiraghi bolmisa.

Bir misal: panusni kör, sham chiraghsiz yorumas,
Nur chachamdu sham chiraq, pilik we yaghi bolmisa!

Xam qapaqning ichi leshtur parqirap turghan bilen,
Méghizi shirin, yangaq, téshi qotur bolghan bilen.

Köktiki parche buluttin elge tegmes qilche nep,
Issitar elni kömür yer astida yatqan bilen.

Miwe bermes hichqachan hay-hay chapan heshqipchek,
Yamiship her nersige, ming yuqiri chiqqan bilen.

Yer béghirlap yatsimu, qoghun-tawuzning peliki,
Toldurar yéza-bazarni nimetu elwan bilen.

(Yeyyarlighuchi — Aptap)

The 100 Best Websites List


Welcome to the widely-watched list of the 100 Best Websites maintained by the editors of 100bestwebsites.org!
For fast access to the 100 Best Websites, drag this link  onto your browser’s Home button to make us your browser-startup page!
Updated Often!
To Bookmark us
hit (CTRL-D)

The best sites on the Web, all in one place!
First to discover this site?
Click here to share us with your friends!
This list is based on the rigorous reviews and opinions of our staff who subject each website to an exhaustive examination
based on
21 criteria of excellence before inclusion. We hope you will enjoy this portal to the finest sites the Web has to offer!
100bestwebsites.org is a non-profit site. We receive no compensation from the sites listed here.
The 100 Best Websites List
If your monitor is 17-inches or greater, please click here for the deluxe FastView version of this site!
This website is non-profit, always free, no registration required (ever!)
#
Website
Summary
1
We believe Google is simply the best tool on the Web for finding just about anything, and it easily claims our Number 1 spot. It is screamingly fast, sleek, streamlined, and as comprehensive as a search tool can be. And that’s just the beginning: check out Wikipedia’s List of Google Products (many of them totally free and extremely useful). Simply put, Google has changed the way the world works.
2
An outstanding search engine, it also provides a cornucopia of free services: free email, maps, games, shopping, news, finance, sports — the list just goes on and on and on! See Wikipedia’s List of Yahoo!-owned sites and services for a good overview of the many things Yahoo! has to offer.
3
Amazon is nothing less than a revolution in how the world shops. It is a huge step forward in the achievement of an ideal competitive market. It is user-friendly, vast, and reliable.
4
About.com breaks up the Web into major subject areas with a volunteer human host for each of them. It helps you sift out the wheat from the chaff on an enormous range of subjects.
5
Much of the greatest literature in the history of humankind will be found in full text form (and free of charge) at this amazing site. In addition, many useful reference tools are here (also free!)
6
Formerly “DejaNews”, Google Groups is a glorious experiment in free speech! This oceanic database of over 800 million posted “Usenet” messages from people all over the globe constitutes the largest bulletin board in the history of the world! It’s fully searchable, and you can post your own messages free of charge. (Tip: don’t use your primary email address in your posts! To avoid spam, use a temporary email address.)
7
A bold endeavor in online journalism, Google News provides you hundreds of news sources (typically) for each of the major stories of the day. Just find the story that interests you on the main page, and you will see something like “227 related” or “535 related” just beneath it. Click this to see the extensive range of news sources available for the story you are after! (Its database of past news is also searchable.)
8
For fast-breaking news and responsible journalism, it’s hard to beat CNN. And the text content at this site is mostly free!
9
Ebay is the world’s biggest, longest-running garage sale, as well as its most extensive auction house. Buy, sell, browse, bid, and be amazed at what you find at this wonderful site!
10
If you love software treasure-hunting, Download.com is the site for you! This massive and well-rounded collection of shareware (try-before-you-buy) and freeware (totally free software) is fully searchable and sortable. And there’s no wait for a package in the mail: download it NOW, install it, and take it for a test drive!
11
Craigslist.org is a daring bulletin board system directed toward the major cities in the US, Canada, the UK, and (soon) other countries. The magical distinction of Craigslist is its use of anonymous email forwarding: your email address is invisible to the public. A pointer (which expires after several days) forwards all responses to you. Visit Craigslist if you want to sell or buy something, if you want to meet new people (romantically or otherwise), if you want to look for a job, or if you want to share your ideas. Almost all of its features are totally free, except job listings for employers.
12
Your inner-librarian will be delighted! Here you will find (free of charge) Dictionaries, Encyclopedias, Almanacs, Atlases, and an assortment of other helpful resources.
13
One of the most remarkable online encyclopedias on the Web! All the content is free, in the public domain, and quotable. Wikipedia is maintained by an army of volunteers. Even so, its content remains of very high quality. Wikipedia is a good example of how the Web can function at is best! Be sure to visit whenever you have any question that an encyclopedia might help you answer. You might be surprised how often Wikipedia will come through for you!
14
Beliefnet.com is an online community for people who practice spirituality in just about any tradition in the world. The emphasis here is on mutual respect and tolerance. Free inquiry and exchange of ideas is invited. Secular (non-religious) philosophies and ideas are also welcome. Also, sacred texts from the world’s great religions will be found referenced at this site.
15
Anywho is a great online phone book and people-finder sponsored by AT&T. Use the Yellow Pages for businesses, the White Pages for people, and the Reverse Lookup if all you have is a phone number.
16
Enter your Zip Code and see the weather predictions for the next ten days (scroll down), courtesy of The Weather Channel. It’s easy and it’s free!
17
Search.com is an outstanding example of a “metasearch engine”: a web search tool that employs over 1,000 search engines running in parallel to help you find what you are looking for.
18
MSN’s Hotmail.com provides you with totally free email, pure and simple!
19
The National Institutes of Health of the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services has created this clearinghouse of information on all matters related to your physical well-being. You’ll find drug information (MEDLINEplus), disease & symptom documentation, health recommendations, summaries on every major system of the human body, and much more at this excellent site.
20
CNET.com (the parent site of Download.com) is a technophile’s oasis! If you are looking for desktop computers, laptops, printers, peripherals, software cell phones, cameras, or just about any other kind of gadgetry, be sure to take advantage of CNET’s reviews and price comparison features. This free site can save you hundred or thousands of dollars, depending on your needs
21
The London Review of Books is a respected journal for those who enjoy reading the best books in the world! At times, the reviews themselves rise to the level of great literature.
22
You could spend tens and tens of hours browsing the huge catalogue of useful websites at Refdesk.com. You’ll find newspapers, photo databases, reference tools, trivia, quotes, self-help advice, search engines, and much, much more at this virtual goldmine of the Web.
23
Simply put, the Mayo Clinic is one of the greatest hospitals and medical research centers on Planet Earth. In that tradition, the Mayo Clinic provides this excellent website devoted to the promotion of human health.
24
If you give some of your time, money, and energy to help the disadvantaged of the world, you would probably like to know that your contributions are put to good use. GuideStar.org provides extensive information on nearly all major charitable organizations. It will help you “heal the world” responsibly.
25
The official portal of the Federal Government of the United States, FirstGov.gov puts you in touch with your elected officials and the agencies and people they govern. Lots of good information here.
26
The BBC has long been the standard for international journalism. At this site, you can watch, listen, and read live and recorded content from the BBC. (Be sure to catch the hourly World News Update!) But don’t stop with the news! Be sure to browse the History, Science, Society, and other categories to find rich content of unusually high quality. You could browse this site for many weeks without exhausting its abundant resources!
27
The Internet Movie Database (IMDB) is a movie-lover’s paradise! Discover every movie your favorite actor/actress has been in, discover every actress/actor in your favorite movie! All the facts about all the films will be found here.
28
Expedia.com makes travel very easy and about as cheap as it can be. Your one stop shop for low-cost air travel, hotels, rental cars, and tour packages!
29
MSN’s Slate is one of the premier online magazines. You’ll find news, ideas, reviews, and much more here.
30
Nutrition.gov provides authoritative information about health and nutrition. You will also find the USDA’s National Nutrient Database here, which will allow you to evaluate your diet with more knowledge than ever before!
31
Alternative medicine has found its voice on the web at Altmedicine.com! Having received praise from many sources (including the prestigious medical journal “The Lancet”), Altmedicine.com explores the best information from many sources on alternative approaches to human health.
32
When you need to get to know a city fast, Citysearch.com should be your first stop! You’ll find information and reviews of restaurants, hotels, places to see, shopping, services, and much more about major American (and some international) cities at this site.
33
Need a job? Visit Monster.com, an enormous database & job listing site for employers and employees to be!
34
Enter your Zip Code and find links to your Congresspersons, your President, and your state representatives! Project Vote Smart will help you become an informed and effective voter.
35
The online manifestaton of Scientific American magazine, Sciam.com presents clear, intelligent writing on the most important scientific discoveries, initiatives, and controversies of our time. Much of the content is free. And you can search past issues!
36
If you love sports, sports history, or sports statistics, ESPN.com is the site for you!
37
MSN’s online encyclopedia Encarta gives you fast, free access to an amazing range of facts. Much of the content is free, but some requires membership.
38
Findlaw.com provides a fantastic set of tools for anyone interested in American Law. Widely used by legal professionals, it can also be used profitably by laymen. Learn the facts about the laws that govern you from this excellent site!
39
One of the world’s premier scientific journals, Nature, provides much of its content online (and much of it free!) Check out subject areas on Chemistry, Physics, Microbiology, Medicine and much more at this fantastic site!
40
Though it’s not quite a substitute for your favorite local paper, USA Today’s “States” news will give you a summary of the major events in all 50 states of the Union.
41
Who would have thought that one of the best selections of fine art prints online would be available at a poster shop?! Allposters.com is almost like an online museum: but a museum at which you can buy what you see (at reasonable prices). Not only fine art, but movie and concert posters and many other things framable will be found here!
42
Time magazine is one most respected news magazines on earth. And much of its content is available free here!
43
Get clear, printable maps, driving directions, addresses of businesses, and much more at Mapquest.com
44
Find your favorite old or out-of-print books at this wonderful site!
45
From Beethoven to the Beatles and beyond, you’ll find Allmusic.com a treasure-trove of musical knowledge.
46
The National Institutes of Health maintains MedlinePlus for those interested in reliable information on prescription and over-the-counter drugs. Even so, you’ll find many other valuable health-related resources here.
47
As modest as it appears, the Open Directory is a true powerhouse in web-searching! It provides search data to many of the most widely-used search engines, and it itself is a first rate directory of the best of the Web.
48
The Library of Congress is gradually making more and more of its collosal store of resources available on the web. Its website should afford you many happy hours of browsing.
49
Online Radio is here, and MSN’s Windows Media is one of the finest sites available devoted to it!
50
Your favorite comics may be online, and they may be here! The latest contributions from Garfield, Calvin & Hobbes, Doonesbury, Cathy, Ziggy, and many others will be found at this easy-to-use site.
51
A first-rate online almanac, atlas, dictionary, & encylcopedia, all rolled into one!
52
What’s good is not always popular, and what’s popular is not always good, but on the Internet, popularity and quality go are found together often enough. Alexa.com helps you find the most frequently visited sites in many categories.
53
When you’re too busy to visit museums in person, you can visit them online! This fantastic guide to online museums is a great place to start.
54
The homepage of the United Nations presents a rich collection of information about the state of humankind on Planet Earth. Practical strategies for making this world a better place are laid out in substantial detail here.
55
The Internet Sacred Text Archive presents the scriptures of the world’s great spiritual traditions. You’ll find sacred writings from Zoroastrianism, Hinduism, Taoism, Buddhism, Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Confucianism, and many others here (along with a few curious entries!)
56
Artforum is one of the world’s most widely read journals devoted to the fine arts. Be sure to check out there “Museum Finder” when you visit!
57
Get sound medical information and tips on a healthy lifestyle from this respected site.
58
The WWW Virtual Library relies on a consortium of experts around the world to present the richest content available on the Web in a broad range of subject areas.
59
MSN’s MoneyCentral will help you make intelligent decisions about investing, taxes, loans, retirement, and all things financial.
60
Wouldn’t you love to track down some of your old school friends? Or maybe a favorite teacher who made a difference in your life? This is the place to start. Basic access is free, premium access is modestly priced.
61
The Hompage of the European Union is home to a vast collection of information about all aspects of European government. The EU’s goals and strategies for achieving them are discussed in detail.
62
Nowhere is it easier to start your own discussion group or bulletin board about just about anything! Within minutes and with no cost, you can have your special subject humming with lively (and often scrappy) discussion. Free speech rules!
63
This foremost literary journal is surprisingly generous with its content: access the full content of each edition online. Remarkable.
64
Not only will you find jokes in abundance here, but each joke has a running rating from site visitors! Be forewarned, not all these jokes are in good taste!
65
Name the price you’re willing to pay for airline tickets, hotels, rental cars, vacations, or cruises. There’s no guarantee your offer will be accepted, but if it is, you will save some serious money!
66
Which movie should you see this weekend? Rottentomatoes.com lets you read the opinions of over 100 critics (for most movies) to help you decide. The “Cream of the Crop” critics list may include your favorite critic. The popular “TomatoMeter” gives you a running average of the critics ratings for each film.
67
The Internet Public Library, based at the University of Michigan, may be the next best thing to having a University library attached to your house! In some ways, it may be even better.
68
We all know we should exercise, but what exercises are best for us? The American Council on Exercise describes exercises that are safe and effective for those wishing to stay in shape.
69
The home of Quicken financial software, this site also provides free tools to help you plan and manage your assets.
70
This celebrated classical music magazine is available online, much of the content free. Paying members will enjoy an extensive collection of additional resources.
71
What does the latest research say about vitamins, minerals, nutritional supplements, and other nutrients? The Micronutrient Information Center of the Linus Pauling Institute provides detailed and well-documented information on all these. (Incidentally, Linus Pauling was the only person in history to win two Nobel Prizes!)
72
PC Magazine has long been a favorite read of computer and technology enthusiasts. For hardware and software reviews, as well as tips for improving your computing experience, be sure to visit this site!
73
Yes, you have to subscribe for access, but it’s worth it to read the Times of London online.
74
The FedWorld Federal Job Search engine might land you in a new job quicker than you had thought possible! It’s free to use, and user-friendly.
75
One of the world’s finest newspapers, the International Herald Tribune is also one of the few online newspapers that doesn’t require registration to read, free or otherwise! (Let’s hope it stays that way!)
76
Over 20,000 free books on the Web, many of them classics! Search by author, title, subject, century, or just browse for fun.
77
Play Chess, Checkers, card games, or work Crosswords online at Pogo.com, a free website maintained by Electronic Arts!
78
BizRate.com may be “the largest, fastest, and most accurate shopping search engine on the Web”. Save money and find top quality at this site.
79
Billboard Magazine has chronicled the world of popular music and entertainment since its founding in 1894! (Yes, that’s 1894, not 1994!) Much of the information at this site is free.
80
Translate the content of an entire website from one language to another simply by entering the site’s web address! Or enter a block of text and translate it from one language to another! To be sure, the translation is not perfect, but it may be good enough for what you need. AltaVista’s Babel Fish Translations site has been serving up automatic translations for years, and it’s free! (To see Babel Fish in action, why not translate and display THIS website in any one of 10 languages with a single click of the mouse — click here  to see our “Translation Bar”!
81
Most of us would like to donate money, time, energy, or ideas to help the least advantaged people of the world. But it is a challenge to ensure that our donations are used effectively and responsibly. Give.org, a service of the Better Business Bureau, evaluates major charities and provides reports on how responsibly they do their work.
82
“The Web’s most extensive mathematics resource” will help you remember all the algebra, geometry, trig, statistics, calculus, and diffie-Q that you left behind years ago! And you’ll probably learn a lot you never knew along the way.
83
Webrings are like pearl necklaces of websites on related topics. Webring.org helps you find the webring that you’d like to browse or insert your own website into.
84
CareerBuilder.com employs its network of more than 130 local newspapers to help employ YOU! If you’re looking for work, do stop by!
85
411.com is a combined online Yellow Pages, White Pages, People Finder, and more!
86
This site exists to help people make intelligent buying decisions. It is a compendium of reviews from thousands of people on thousands of different products. A good site to visit before any major purchase.
87
The Religious Studies Web Guide is an enormous collection of links to major journals in theology and spiritual philosophy.
88
Arts & Letters Daily is a favorite stop for those who love thinking, literature, and dazzling ideas. It’s always fresh and always relevant.
89
The homepage of Nolo Press, the pioneers of do-it-yourself law, is also a rich source of free legal information.
90
Classical music lovers of all different levels of experience and sublety will love this site devoted to the history and ideas of great western music.
91
Create your own “blog” to express your ideas to the world and invite responses. This service is high quality, and it’s free!
92
The New York Times online does require (free) registration, but it is well worth that small investment of time. Keep up on events that shape the world by visiting often.
93
Live online cameras are all over the world in fascinating and often unlikely places. Look through many windows on the world LIVE at Earthcam.com!
94
The Better Business Bureau is online and ready to help in the continuing struggle against shoddy business practices.
95
Harvard Medical School’s respository of consumer health information will be found at this excellent site, along with many user-friendly articles on health, disease, drugs, and the human body.
96
Keep a journal online about anything at all! And browse the journals of others. Livejournal.com is one of the most popular “blogging” sites, and with very good reason.
97
The “Religion & Ethics” site of the BBC sets the world’s great spiritual traditions side by side and provides extensive information on each of them.
98
This “daily digest of arts, culture, and ideas” is sure to provide stimulation for aesthetes and intellectuals.
99
The purpose of ticketmaster.com is simple: get the tickets you want easily, in advance, and at a reasonable cost.
100
Project Gutenberg presents a collection of over 15,000 electronic books (“ebooks”) available for free download! Most are older literary works in the public domain, many of the considered classics. An amazing and useful monument to the volunteer labor of thousands of participants!

Hunlarning Yéziqi


Turghun Almas

{Menbe: Orkhun.com, imlasi tehrirlendi. —- Aptap}

Yéqinqi chaghlarghiche sheriq we gherip alimliri arisida, Hunlarning yéziqi mesilisi heqqide bir-birige oxshimaydighan her xil qarashlar höküm surdi. Bundaq qarashlarni asasen üch xilgha ayrish mumkin.

1) Bezi tarxichilar “Honlarning yéziqi yoq idi, til bilenla cheklinetti” dégen pikirni algha süridu.

2) Bezi tarixchilar “Honlar xenzu yéziqini qollan’ghan bolishi mumkin” déyishidu.

3) Bezi tarixchilar “Honlar özliri ijad qilghan yéziqni qollan’ghan yaki bashqa ilghar milletlerning yéziqini qobul qilghan, yighip éytqanda, Hunlar yéziq qollan’ghan” déyishidu.

Tarixiy tereqiyat basquchlirining ortaq xususiyetke ige qanoniyiti we Junggoning qedimki yilnamiliridiki paktlar, yéqinqi yillarda tépilghan yazma yadikarliqlargha asaslinip, Hunlar miladidin besh esr burunla Yensey-Orxun Yéziqini qollan’ghan, dep qet’iy höküm qilish asasigha igimiz. Shundaq iken, uchaghda birinchi we ikkinchi xil qarashlarni üzül-késil ret qilish lazim. Emdi paktlargha nezer salayli:

1) Medeniyet bolsa jem’iyet tereqqiyatigha egiship tereqqiy qilidu. Honlar miladidin birnechche esr burunla féodalliq jem’iyetke qedem qoyghan. Ular shu chaghlardin bashlapla tömür, mis, altun qatarliq qara we renglik métallardin herbiy qoral, sen’et buyumliri qatarliq türlük nersilerni yasashta xéli yoquri mueyyen sewiyege kötürülgen. Tömür qorallarning yasilishi (ishlepchiqirish qorallirimu buning ichide) ishlepchiqirish küchlirining sewiyisini yoquri kötürgen. Bundaq tereqqiyat basquchida alla qachanla yéziq qollan’ghan. F. In’gilis mundaq dep yazidu: “Tömür rodisini éritishtin tartip, heriplik yéziqning keship qilinishi we uning yéziqlar üchün ishlitilishi arqiliq medeniyetke ötidu.” Tarixiy tereqqiyat qanuni boyiche éytqanda, miladidin nechche esr burun métal éritip (mis, tömür, altun) türlük qorallar we saymanlar yasashta alahide yoquri sewiyege yetken, qudretlik ulugh Hun tengriqutliqini qurup, döletning teshkiliy tüzümini téximu mukemmelleshtürüp, maddiy we meniwi medeniyetning xil-muxil türlirini yaratqan Hunlarning yéziq qollanmasliqi tarixiy tereqqiyat qanuniyitigimu, eqilghimu zadi sighmisa kérek.

2) Hunlarning yéziq qollan’ghanliqini ispatlaydighan tarixiy paktlarmu az emes. Batur tengriqutning miladidin 192 yil burun Xen qiralchisi (ayal padishahi) Luy xu’gha, miladidin 176 yil burun Xen padishahi Windigha yazghan mektupliri, Kiyuk tengriqutning miladidin 162 yil burun Xen padishahi Windigha yazghan mektupi, bularning hemmisi delil bolalaydu. Mektuplerning birside Kiyuk tengriqut Xen-Wudigha mundaq dep yazghan: “Kök Tengri bilen Yer Tengrisi teripidin hayat bérilgen, Kün Tengri bilen Ay Tengri teripidin textke chiqirilghan ulugh Hun tengriquti Xen padishahining salametligini éhtiram bilen soraydu”, Qaman (Shaman) dinigha étiqad qilidighan Hunlar asman’gha, yerge, kün’ge, aygha étiqad qilidighan adetke ige idi. Shunga ularning yazghan mektupliri Qaman dinining nahayiti küchlük tesirige uchurghandin tashqiri, bediiy jehettimu obrazliq xususiyetke ige idi.

3) Hunlar miladidin burunla öz dölitining herbiy we memuriy xeritilirini sizghan we uni qollan’ghan. Miladidin 36 yil burun Qutiosh tengriqut (56 – 36) öltürülgende xushalliqini basalmay qalghan Xen padishahi Yendi (48 – 33) wezirlirige bergen ziyapitide Qutiosh tengriqut hayat chéghida ishletken xeritini öz emeldarlirigha körsetken iken, mana shu xeritige Hunlar térritoriyisidiki taghlar we deryalar chüshürülgen. Shu Xerite Qutiosh tengriqutning siyasiy, herbiy ishlarni orunlashturidighan xeritisi bolishi mumkin. Miladining 48- yili Hunlarning Batis Bey xani Xen padishahi Guang-Wudigha Gu-Xing atliq Xenzu arqiliq Hunlar dölitining xeritisini mexpiy halda ewetip bergen. Mana bu xeritining Qutiosh tengriqutning xeritisi bilen oxshash xerite bolishi tebiiy. Hunlar siyasiy we herbiy ishlarni orunlashturushta xeritilerni sizip, uni qollan’ghan iken, Hunlarning u chaghdiki xeritilerdiki shertlik belgilerni yéziq arqiliq izahlighanliqida shek yoq.

4) Miladining 250- yilliri Junggo padishahi (bu mezgil üch dölet mezgili idi) Kambodjhagha wekiller ömiki ewetken. Wekiller ömikidiki Kang-Tey atliq adem dölitige qaytip kelgende, Kambodjhaliqlarning yéziqi Hunlarning yéziqigha oxshaydiken dégen. Shu chaghlarda Kambodjhaliqlar Hindi yéziqini qollan’ghanidi. Elchi Kang-Tey Kambodjhaliqlar qollan’ghan Hindi sansikirit yéziqi (yaki Qarushti yéziqi) bilen qedimki chaghlarda Hunlar qollan’ghan Yensey-Orxun yéziqining perqini taza ayriyalmay, shundaq dégen bolishi mumkin. Eng muhimi, Hunlarning yéziqi barliqini 3- esrde yashighan Xenzularmu bilidiken.

Yuqurida keltürülgen tarixy yazma paktlar (Hunlarning yazghan mektupliri, Hun xeritiliri, Kang-Teyning bergen melumatliri) Hunlarning yéziqi barliqini ispatlashqa yarisimu, lékin Hunlarning zadi qandaq yéziq qollan’ghanliqi heqqide birnerse déyish qiyin idi. Mana shu eng qiyin, eng jiddiy hel qilghuch mesile hazir üzül-késil hel boldi. Pakti töwendikiche:

5) “Kéyinki yillarda Ruslar Qazaqistan jumhuriyitining Almutadin 50 kilométir yiraqliqtiki Isiqköl etirapida bir qorghan xarabisini qazdi. Bu qézish ishlirida arxélogiye tarixigha ‘Altun kiyimlik adem’ dep yézilghan we yash ölüp ketken bir Türk shahzadisining maziri tépildi, shahzadining yénida kümüsh tawaqta Köktürk élipbesining deslepki shekli dep hisaplan’ghan we Türkche ikenligi algha sürülgen ibariler bar. Bu tépilma miladidin besh esr burunqi tarixqa mensup bolup, Türk medeniyitining qedimiyliqini téximu ilgiri sürdi. Bu ehwal qedimki Türk medeniyiti üstide élip bérilghan eng ulugh keshpiyatlarning biri hisaplinidu.” Mana bu Hunlarning qollan’ghan yéziqi Yensey-Orxun yéziqi (Köktürk yéziqi) ikenlikini ispatlashta ret qilghili bolmaydighan pakt. Hunlar teripidin boysundurulghan we Hunlargha qérindash bolghan Türklerning yéziqini Hunlarning qobul qilip, uni qollanmasliqi zadi mumkin bolidighan ish emes. Qitanlar döliti (916-1211), ulugh Mongghul impériyisi (1209-1368) qedimki Uyghur yéziqini qobul qilip, uni dölet yéziqi süpitide qollan’ghan emesmu? Tibetlermu Mongghullar arqiliq qedimki uyghur yéziqini qobul qilip taki hazirghiche qollinip kelmekte.

Bezilerning Orxun boyliridin tépilghan Köktürk menggü tashliri we Uyghurxanliqigha dair menggü tashlargha asaslinip, Uyghurlarning yazma edebiyati 7- esrdin bashlinidu, 7- esrdin bashlap yéziqqa ige bolghan déyishliri emdi obyéktip tarixiy paktlargha yarisha ret qilinishi kérek.

Xulase qilip éytqanda, Hunlar miladidin bir nechche esr burunla Yensey-Orxun yéziqini qollan’ghan.
*

Thursday Poem: What Work Is, by Philip Levine


Scratch That

On Sunday, I was lucky enough to snag a last minute ticket to the New Yorker Festival event, ‘Poets Read Their Work’, featuring Michael Dickman, Jorie Graham, Terrance Hayes, Philip Levine and Tracy K. Smith. I was there for Smith, whose work in Life on Mars I have previously raved about. It’s transcendent. And yet, possibly because of the heights of my expectation, I ended up being blown away more by the other poets.

I had heard of Terrance Hayes, and read one or two of his poems, but the others were a mystery. More’s the shame. I can’t wait to buy their books. Well, I can’t wait until I have the money to buy their books, especially Levine’s, because he was a revelation. A small old man with a wiry moustache, and silver hair flecked with black, he read third. I remember wondering what he’d sound like; his hands were…

View original post 806 more words