DNA from Neandertal Relative May Shake Up Human Family Tree


Ann is a contributing correspondent forScience

LONDON—In a remarkable technical feat, researchers have sequenced DNA from fossils in Spain that are about 300,000 to 400,000 years old and have found an ancestor—or close relative—of Neandertals. The nuclear DNA, which is the oldest ever sequenced from a member of the human family, may push back the date for the origins of the distinct ancestors of Neandertals and modern humans, according to a presentation here yesterday at the fifth annual meeting of the European Society for the study of human evolution.

Ever since researchers first discovered thousands of bones and teeth from 28 individuals in the mid-1990s from Sima de los Huesos (“pit of bones”), a cave in the Atapuerca Mountains of Spain, they had noted that the fossils looked a lot like primitive Neandertals. The Sima people, who lived before Neandertals, were thought to have emerged in Europe. Yet their teeth, jaws, and large nasal cavities were among the traits that closely resembled those of Neandertals, according to a team led by paleontologist Juan-Luis Arsuaga of the Complutense University of Madrid. As a result, his team classified the fossils as members of Homo heidelbergensis, a species that lived about 600,000 to 250,000 years ago in Europe, Africa, and Asia. Many researchers have thought H. heidelbergensis gave rise to Neandertals and perhaps also to our species,H. sapiens, in the past 400,000 years or so.

But in 2013, the Sima fossils’ identity suddenly became complicated when a study of the maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from one of the bones revealed that it did not resemble that of a Neandertal. Instead, it more closely matched the mtDNA of a Denisovan, an elusive type of extinct human discovered when its DNA was sequenced from a finger bone from Denisova Cave in Siberia. That finding was puzzling, prompting researchers to speculate that perhaps the Sima fossils had interbred with very early Denisovans or that the “Denisovan” mtDNA was the signature of an even more ancient hominin lineage, such as H. erectus. At the time, researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, who had obtained the mtDNA announced that they would try to sequence the nuclear DNA of the fossils to solve the mystery.

After 2 years of intense effort, paleogeneticist Matthias Meyer of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology has finally sequenced enough nuclear DNA from fossils of a tooth and a leg bone from the pit to solve the mystery. The task was especially challenging because the ancient DNA was degraded to short fragments, made up of as few as 25 to 40 single nucleotides. (Nucleotides—also known as base pairs—are the building blocks of DNA.) Although he and his colleagues did not sequence the entire genomes of the fossils, Meyer reported at the meeting that they did get 1 million to 2 million base pairs of ancient nuclear DNA.

They scanned this DNA for unique markers found only in Neandertals or Denisovans or modern humans, and found that the two Sima fossils shared far more alleles—different nucleotides at the same address in the genome—with Neandertals than Denisovans or modern humans. “Indeed, the Sima de los Huesos specimens are early Neandertals or related to early Neandertals,” suggesting that the split of Denisovans and Neandertals should be moved back in time, Meyer reported at the meeting.

Researchers at the meeting were impressed by this new breakthrough in ancient DNA research. “This has been the next frontier with ancient DNA,” says evolutionary biologist Greger Larson of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom.

The close affinity with Neandertals, but not with Denisovans or modern humans, suggests that the lineage leading to Neandertals was separate from other archaic humans earlier than most researchers have thought. That means that the ancestors of modern humans also had to split earlier than expected from the population that gave rise to Neandertals and Denisovans, who were more closely related to each other than they were to modern humans. (Although all three groups interbred at low levels after their evolutionary paths diverged—and such interbreeding may have been the source of the Denisovan mtDNA in the first Sima fossil whose DNA was sequenced.) Indeed, Meyer suggested in his talk that the ancestors of H. sapiens may have diverged from the branch leading to Neandertals and Denisovans as early as 550,000 to 765,000 years ago, although those results depend on different mutation rates in humans and are still unpublished.

That would mean that the ancestors of humans were already wandering down a solitary path apart from the other kinds of archaic humans on the planet 100,000 to 400,000 years earlier than expected. “It resolves one controversy—that they’re in the Neandertal clade,” says paleoanthropologist Chris Stringer of the Natural History Museum in London. “But it’s not all good news: From my point of view, it pushes back the origin of H. sapiens from the Neandertals and Denisovans.” The possibility that humans were a distinct group so early shakes up the human family tree, promising to lead to new debate about when and where the branches belong.

 http://news.sciencemag.org/archaeology/2015/09/dna-neandertal-relative-may-shake-human-family-tree?utm_source=facebook&utm_medium=social&utm_campaign=facebook

Posted in Archaeology, Evolution

Dangliq Shair Bughda Abdullaning Salgha Téshi Dastani


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· (1)
Yulghunning naxshisi az emes,
könük sadalar ichre leylimes,
erkiliter özini tuqay, sahilda,
bizarliqtin yiraq, ghérich chetnimes.
Rengler yoqatsa barghanche belgisini,
chang-tozanda buruqtum bolsa bu alem,
heyhat, néme küchkin uni saqlighan,
deqiqiler öler, u tirik her dem.
Dinozawurlar qaldi qayaqta,
ghar ara tuxumliri poltiyip qatqan.
Binepshe rengler esrar elwette,
dérek aldida emes aghmixan.
Nil we donayning kök shawqunigha,
tengshilip turidu tunji merghuli.
Yawayi wadida tughulghan risqi,
borandek échilip baridu yoli.
Miladi dem turushtin burun,
otni téngip kelgen baghrigha.
U giyahlarning promitisi,
choller kirip kelgen ixtiyarigha.
Boshluq ichide qaytmas waqit,
desht hayati bash we axirsiz.
Tiriklik urghuydu qinida,
yarmaydu tash uruqmu rohsiz.
Teqdirning salgha tishigha,
oxshap qalidu chöl bilen insan.
Uningda bar yarilish, udum,
keldi yashap möjizisiman.
Intilish küchi-tutimidimu?
Söyunush küchi -yiltizidimu?
Hayatiy küchi-shor tupraqtimu?
Bayliq küchi oghlan-qizdimu?
Bedel, qiymasliq, untulush,
halsirash, sighinish, küchesh.
Eslesh, sozulush, örlesh .
Köyush, tingirqash, tirejesh.
(2)
Muqeddes derexke chigilgen lata,
arzu-umidning yapraqchisidek.
Qochqar münggüzi shamalda önggen,
epsunsiz dunyaning jakarchisidek.
Qaytar ademler tugh-shadigha,
roh yuyulup turidu qumluqta.
Sebiyliktin bashlinar nepes,
gulxan aylan’ghandek altun’gha otta.
Kiche, qumluqning qarangghusida,
kélidu yawayi jenglerdin sada.
Bu eqildin gheyri körünüsh,
körsetme xuda!
Sayning tishidek turghan bash söngek,
ming gez kömülsimu göher bolalmas.
Boranda échilip kökleydu toptek,
(belki shu belki emes adawet qisas!)
bir-birige soqular dehshet,
huwlashning ichide chachrar ustixan.
Bu yultuz emes aqqan,
bu emes yekmu-yek meydan.
Bu tarixning kölenggisimu?
Bu inkarning xulasisimu?
Bu törilishning jazasimu?
Bu ghalibiyetning tentenisimu?
Bu meghlubiyetning méwisimu?
Hemme kömülidiken tebietke,
hemme singidiken tebietke.
Yatliship, dawamliship,
ulishidiken ebediyetke.
Boran toxtar, jimiydu hemme,
aqar qomluq laylanmay pakiz.
Yulghunlarning chüshlirimu ong,
bulghinishni bilmeydu hergiz.
Tebiiylik masliqqa chopqet,
belgisiz yantaqqa yaqqandek shiker.
Kem-kötisi yoq ya artuqi,
julalan’ghan yaquttek bu yer.
Münggüzlerni mesh’el qilghan yurt,
riwayetliri bir altun achquch.
Saqlan’ghan chishlarning arashlirida,
yingilan’ghandek ximirturuch.
Tingsha ziminni qulaq yiqip,
bayqilidu dap ara ritim.
Halsiz emes, tulpar yorghisi,
kemtük emes, bijirim.
Yawayi tash öngkürler öchken,
köriner ming öylerning boyiqi ara.
Köcher andin kéyiklerning közige,
nohqa tutushidu bara-bara.
Ötidu u
ming patman ketmenning közidin,
sapanlarning quliqidin,
yalang ayaghlarning tiniqidin.
Uliship turidu bir uchi,
burujdiki seyyarining aylinishigha.
Qoghlishidu awazni-awaz,
biliq aqqandek suning bishigha.
Parqiraq kumuta, perwane hetta.
Shu siziqtin emes tashqiri,
tomuzghining nepisi tiriler,
shu hikmetni bilgendin béri.
Chongqur bir süküt,
uning ichide bir süzük tamche,
ösüp-öskendek sedepte.
Bibaha bolidu barghanche.
(3)
Éqin boylirida awudi kün -tün,
yépinip yürgini qoy tirisi,
yawayi tongguzni miner kalidek,
hayqiyip towlighini muqam-naxshisi.
Muqeddeslik tughulidu nimidin?
Ya qan-terdin,
ya xisletning xatimisidin,
ya hatemlerning köksidin.
Su-yorup turghan qashtishi,
desht-ussap turghan bir qapaq.
Boran örüp-chörigüchi,
waqit-paxtisi uchar bir qamqaq.
Qedim izda aqidu tupraq,
qedim xushbuyluq ketmeydu érip.
Yükseklik bar xiyabandimu,
kök qiyaq yashaydu meghrurlinip.
Aqqan, qoshulghan, yughurulghan,
tiklen’gen, yashighan, gümürülgen.
Tughulghan, sorigen, sörelgen,
tirmashqan, qir ashqan, nan yégen.
Qara qurumdin-idiqutqiche,
xan sarayliri, ibadetxane,
altun mebud we altun chiragh,
bilgen rast der, bilmigen epsane.
Orxun aqqan yiraq-yiraqta,
tarim derya aqqan bu yaqta,
tengritagh büyük umurtqa,
böshük bilen hepileshken ana,
ana tilning sherbetliridin,
tamship-tamship alghanda lezzet,
déngiz bolutidek turghan minge
échélip wiliqlap kületti perzent.
Aq arghimaq üstide mehmud,
arilap yürgini yurt-qewim.
Pey qelemde qonatti sözlük,
chüshenchiler emes héch mewhum.
“qut”ni qoshar “bilik”ke yüsüp,
kélechek yillargha kirip aldidin.
Ayighida otqash payandaz,
chachqular aylinar üsti-bishidin.
Biri munejjim-yultuz sanar,
biri kimiyager,
biri muhendis,
biri momyager.
Qedim digen sirliq bir uqum,
telep qilmas héch bir izahat.
Belki qalghan yilikler ara,
küchi bilen irghiydu hayat.
Yawayiliq qedimiylikmu?
Zaman bisip kilidu insan.
U özini biler hem bilmes,
xuddi mujimel bir tebirsiman.
Qalidiken epsus yep axir,
bu tughulush-ölüsh arisi.
Qizirip öchkendek tömür atesh,
halidin kéter közining qarisi.
Ya jawahirdimu qimmet?
Ya kibirdimu qimmet?
Ya yalghandimu qimmet?
Ya sirdimu qimmet?
Yumranliq turidu kökürüp,
xatirjemlik kötüridu bash.
Ochuqluq-yillargha beriket,
izgü niyet-yol, qayash.
Tilsim üstide uchar leylekler,
nimigidu yéqinlashqandek,
keklik idirgha singer bolghandek,
nimidindur uzaqlashqandek.
Xizir yürermish chet-yaqida,
kömermish échilip qalsa zimin.
Tülke töshiki bop ketmisun dep,
seher-tanglarda qilarmish amin.
Bu yerde menzildin-menzilge,
köchken yilanlar ilgirilep.
Güldürligen awazlar,
ghelite nersining sadasi.
Lerzide zimin-zamane,
makan-makane,
qorqqan ademler derexte,
tang qétip turushqan seherlep.
Uzap ketken shu yosun bilen,
sirliq ghelite hemme-hemmisi.
Bu bir quyunsiz quyun,
waqit-saitini bolmaydu bilip.
Tebiet bir mewhum tardek,
turidu eytawur
tengsheksizlik ichide tengshilip.
(4)
Tun boyi toxtimay yighip turdi qum,
(toshqan yili der buni riwayet)
kétik shehiri, sipil, qel’eler,
restiler, xezine, bagh-waran peqet,
qaldi weyranliq, qarangghuluqta,
meschitler, munarlar, gümbezler,
öylerde ölükler qatqan gharayip,
(shamalda échilar bezen-beziler)
qushning bishigha kelgendek ejel,
chökken bir hayat qaldi arqida.
Aman qalghanlar köchti jan ilip,
taghlar kel-kel dep turdi shamalda.
Nirisida gürüldeydu qum,
xiyal yetmes bir tilsimat.
Qachan chüshler qaldi qeyerde,
izdep qoyishar pat-pat.
Igizlikte min’giship turghan,
zedewal tagh, tash qowuq téghi.
Namsiz otlar kechküzge hösin,
tulparlarning qizar tuyiqi.
Su ilahi qudret-küchini,
körsitidu firozesiman.
Lachin köngli öser qiyada,
qanitini böleydu asman.
(5)
Teklimakan-emes yawayi uqum,
özige singgen nam su tamchisidek.
Özige yarashqan altun tajidek,
weya zer basqan doppidek.
Qum -chépip yürgen yawayi töge,
töge-yene bir salgha téshi,
bu yer üchün chüshüshi,
bu yer üchün köyüp-pishishi.
Utturush emes zuwansizliqi,
chölde yürgini emes ghapilliqi.
Izini kömümen deydu shamallar,
baturliqi-jahilliqi,
u tirilidu deshttin,
at tirilgendek shamaldin,
kala tirilgendek sudin,
qoy tirilgendek shordin.
Köz nuri toshqan yungidek,
atesh qum bilen bolghan bir gewde,
u baghrining hikayisidek,
taralghusi bügün we ete,
biz insan biz kibir ichide,
rohi bilen kelduq étiship.
Kim eyiblik sözlisun zaman,
u erishte bolmas tengliship,
u bugun’ge aylan’ghan qedim,
yiraq dingizghiche barghan, rast.
Yirim uxlaq yawrupagha
yipek yépindurghan, rast.
Gomirning küyliri emes natonush,
eplatunni ilip kelgen u.
Sorunlargha yaqa tutturup,
sunmas köwrük sélip kelgen u.
Anga artqan ümid yükini,
yene ejdad qilip iltija.
Dingiz atlap dingizgha chökken,
biliqlargha yetken idi ah,
qaldi söngek, ghérib qebriler,
bu alemning niriqi chitide.
Barsa kelmes yollar, gunahi
anini qattiq emgenlikide.
Ayighida chörgiler alem,
renjish-renjitish ichide dunya.
Zamanlar tekken chishigha belki,
“al shehiringni!…” digendek,
qismetliri shiriksiz taki,
dunya patqan ighir gunahqa,
shu wejidin towe-istighpar
bolup yene yuyulup turar,
u saqittur tekrar we tekrar.
Ey baba töge,
sanga tonush hemme-hemmisi.
Deydighu séni chöl kémisi,
sepiringning barmu pellisi?
Sen kömülgen kichik heykelchaq,
qum tégide peryadliring bar,
jüp örkishing numus küchüngmu?
Tapiningda aq niyetliring bar.
Tikilisen yiraq we ünsiz,
ghayip awazlar hemrahingmidur?
Qedimki qayas shehiri,
kim bilidu bargahingmidur.
Quliqingda derya shawquni,
arqa derya patqan uyqugha.
Yene turup siljighing kelmes,
yardangliqqa, toqaygha,
hayatbexsh shamalni chillap
hem mest bolup uningdin künde,
yashawergin aqqan yolungda
séningmu bir xudaying bar-de!
(6)
Chöl yatidu hesetsiz,
ming tawlinip tawustek.
Mestxushliqi sualsiz, jawabsiz,
körüner esir leheng quyruqidek.
Bu tarim
insan tirisini tüsletken,
bu yer quruq qelemchini ta
sanjip qoysa kökletken!
Abihayat tamghan toghraqlargha
ming yil yashaydu tik turup,
ming yil yashaydu yanche yitip,
ming ying yashaydu qighi, törilip…
Toghraq, toghraq yishil rohmikin,
leyleshliri körkem hem nazuk,
u tölidi qanchilik bedel,
yishelmeydu xiyal héch tüzük.
Qanche biri yer bighirlighan,
tesewwur qilghandek tughulishini;
ana derexning tolghiqi achchiq,
körüp alqinida janning oynishini,
her hasirashning tikenliride,
buj-buj terler bolidu éren.
Chekcheygen közining chanaqlirida
toxtap-toxtap qalidu süren…
Teqdir kimiside giyah hem insan,
tallinish ichide turidu haman.
Qismet wehimisi: zaman adimi,
eqil balaghiti bir telwesiman.
Yopurmaqlargha ne kirek kanar,
tursun igizlik, kenglikte.
Sadda bir hayat tekemmul,
jéni tirilmeydu tünglükte.
Sixiyning qolidin chiqqini,
may yighip qoyidu börekke,
uninggha ash tartsang ligen al,
biraq hich zorlima komzekke.
Bu yerde türülüp qalmisun,
guzellik ilahining qapaq-qashliri.
Qoynidin tökulup turar durdane,
emes xunüklükning dashqalliri,
afina qizini yaratqan grik,
gülyanide janan yaratti uyghur.
Qum ara yelken chiqarsa kime,
bayrun tang qétip qalatti bir qur,
qiz-tarimdiki aqqusiman,
jennet-tengri özige qaldurghan.
Perishtiler-yulghundin kökler,
qanatlinip kétishken heryan…
Babalar biliptiken bir nime ,
qumluqning ichkirisige panalinip.
Emdiki köz bilen qarisaq,
yürmeptiken xata qilip.
Rohiy rehmet qilmaydu tama,
ketti tamam tupraqqa aylinip.
Chang-zerrisi bash üstüngde taj,
kebitullah bil, sejdigah qilip.
Izdisher, izdigen özining izi,
qochqarghimu sherep münggüzi.
Munarning tüwi yoq asmanda,
uchi-uch, tüwide yiltizi.
Boyun asqumu körün’ginila,
menzilmu yetsem dep telpün’ginila.
Chöl mijezi jimjit deryadek,
bilisen shir bolup törelgendila.
Miwisi altun, yapriqi kümüsh,
jigde derixi güpüldise,
“yette qizlirim” turidu hayat,
yandurghan mesh’ilini tewretmise.
Qurmish ata, tölemish ata,
palwan ata-bir aq kime malxay.
Uruldi bir qaysi qiyagha,
mümkinmu jiyekte istek bolunmay?!
Chöchüydu teswir ibarisidin,
undaq qilsa gunah bolidu.
Oghlanlargha böre hoshuqi tumar,
dawan dawisa hemrah bolidu.
(7)
Aydingda barxan-barxan qum,
körünidu bek ghuwa, soghuq.
Gharlarda peqet muz bilen shamal,
ahanglar tiniq, ilahi, toluq:
altun qongghuraqni eslitip,
chirislighan archini eslitip,
merwayit nurini eslitip,
hawareng-boyaqni eslitip,
tarsizliqi möjizidek,
qararsizliqi möjizidek,
turidu u sugha aylinip,
turidu u yiltizgha aylinip,
u niyet
u tozimas riwayet.

*****