Ulugh Ustaz Memtimin Bughra Hezretlirini Xatirleymiz!


Milliy rohiyitimizning arxitektorlirining biri, yengi dewir dewletchilik iddiyemizning qurghuchisi, ulugh ustaz Memtimin Bughra hezretliri!


Muhammad Amin Bughra also Muḥammad Amīn Bughra (1901–1965) (Uyghur: محمد أمين بۇغرا‎), Муххамад Эмин Бугро, Chinese: 穆罕默德·伊敏; pinyin:Mùhǎnmòdé·Yīmǐn (sometimes known by his Turkish name Mehmet Emin Bugra) was a Turkic Muslim leader, who planned to set up an independent state, the First East Turkestan Republic.

In the spring of 1937, rebellion again broke out in southern Sinkiang. A number of factors contributed to the outbreak. In an effort to appease the Turkic Muslims,Sheng Shicai had appointed a number of their non-secessionist leaders, includingKhoja Niyaz Hajji and Yulbars Khan, another leader of the Kumul uprising (February 20, 1931- November 30, 1931), to positions of influence in the provincial government, both in Di Hua (modern Ürümqi) and Kashgar.

At the same time, educational reforms, which attacked basic Islamic principles, and the atheistic propaganda program, which was being extended into the south, were further alienating the local population from Sheng’s administration. In KashgarMahmud Sijang, a wealthy Muslim, former leader of the Turpan uprising (1932), and one of Sheng’s appointees, became the focal point for opposition to the government.

Meanwhile, in Afghanistan under Sardar Mohammad Hashim Khan, Muhammad Amin Bughra, the exiled leader of theTurkish Islamic Republic of East Turkestan(TIRET, known as the first East Turkestan Republic), had approached theJapaneseambassador in 1935 with “a detailed plan proposing the establishment of an ‘Eastern Turkestan Republic’ under Japanese sponsorship, with munitions and finance to be supplied by Tokyo…. he suggested as the future leader of this proposed Central AsianManchukuo‘ none other than Mahmud Sijang (Mahmut Muhiti – commander of the 6th Uyghur Division, stationed in Kashgar as part of the Sinkiang provincial armed forces, since July 20, 1934), amongst the invitation at such political entity as Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere how active member.” However, this plan was aborted when Mahmud, fearful for his life, fled from Kashgar to India on April 2, 1937, after failed attempt ofSheng Shicai to disarm his troops by offering to ” modernize ” weapons of 6th Uyghur Division, prior which all old weapons of Division was to be given over to Urumchi representatives.

Mahmud’s flight sparked an uprising amongst his troops against provincial authorities.[2] Those who were pro-Soviet in any way were executed, and yet another independent Muslim administration was set up under leadership of the close associate of Mahmut Muhiti General Abduniyaz (killed in action in Yarkand on August 15, 1937), who adopted a command of troops, which enlisted about 4,000 soldiers and officers, consisted of 4 regiments, two of them being stationed in Kashgar, one in Yangihissar, one in Yarkand, also one brigade was stationed in Ustin Atush and one cavalry guard escadron in Kashgar. Sheng Shicai‘s provincial troops were defeated and routed by rebels in the fierce battle near city of Karashahr in July,1937, but eventually the uprising was quelled by Soviet troops (by the so-calledKyrgyz Brigade, about 5,000 troops, consisted of two tactical groups- Oshskayaand Narinskaya, each included 2 mountain regiments, one of Red Army and one ofNKVD, reinforced by armoured vehicles, tank battalion (21 BT-7) and aviation; there were unconfirmed reports of the use of chemical weapons by these intervention forces against rebels), invited by Sheng Shicai to intervene in the August, 1937.

In 1940, Muhammad Amin Bughra published the book Sharkiy Turkestan Tarihi (East Turkestan History) while in exile in Kashmir, which described the history of the region from ancient times to the present day, and contained an analysis of the reasons for the loss of its independence in the middle of the eighteenth century.

In 1940 Isa Yusuf Alptekin and Ma Fuliang who were sent by Chiang Kai-shek, visited Afghanistan and contacted Bughra, they asked him to come to Chongqing, the capital of the Kuomintang regime. Bughra was arrested by the British in 1942 for spying for Japan, and the Kuomintang arranged for Bughra’s release. He and Isa Yusuf worked as editors of Kuomintang Muslim publications. Under the Zhang Zhizhong regime in Xinjiang, he was provincial commissioner.[3]

Muhammad Amin Bughra and fellow Pan-Turkic Jadidist and East Turkestan Independence activist Masud Sabri rejected the Soviet imposition of the name “Uyghur people” upon the Turkic people of Xinjiang. They wanted instead the name “Turkic ethnicity” (Tujue zu in Chinese) to be applied to their people. Masud Sabri also viewed the Hui people as Muslim Han Chinese and separate from his own people.[4] The names “Türk” or “Türki” in particular were demanded by Bughra as the real name for his people. He slammed Sheng Shicai for his designation of Turkic Muslims into different ethnicities which could sow disunion among Turkic Muslims.[5]

In December, 1948, Muhammad Amin Bughra was appointed by Chiang Kai Shek as vice-chairman of the Sinkiang Government, led by Burhan Shahidi. He declared an alliance with the Chinese nationalists (Kuomintang) in order to gain autonomy for the Turkic people, under formal protection of the Republic of China, and necessity of quelling all communist forces in Sinkiang, including the Soviet backed Second East Turkestan Republic.

Upon the approach of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army to Sinkiang in September, 1949, Muhammad Amin Bughra fled to India, then to Turkey, where he joined another exiled Uyghur leader, Isa Yusuf Alptekin, former General Secretary of the National Assembly of TIRET or the First East Turkestan Republic. The latter Republic had existed a short time, from November 12, 1933, to February 6, 1934, and fell apart under attacks by the Hui armies of Ma Chung-ying, who was formally allied with the Kuomintang government in Nanking.

In 1954, Muhammad Amin Bughra and Isa Yusuf Alptekin went to Taiwan to try to persuade the Kuomintang government of the Republic of China of dropping its claims to Xinjiang. Their demand was rejected and Taiwan affirmed that it claimed Xinjiang as “an integral part of China”.[6]

Muhammad Amin Bughra died in exile in Turkey in 1965.


Abduréhim Ötkür Wapatining 20- Yilliqi Xatirilinidu


Yene 20 kündin kéyin istidatliq tetqiqatchi, mol– husulluq yazghuchi, méhnetkesh shair abduréhim tileshup ötkürning wapat bolghinigha del 20 yil bolidu. 20- esir uyghur edebiyatining serke qelemkeshlirining biri, proféssor hülya qasapoghlu chengelning tebiri boyiche ‹20 –esirning mehmud kashigherisi› hésablidighan ötkür ependi wapatining 20- yilliqining diyarimiz tewelikide xatirilinidighan yaki xatirilenmeydighanliqi heqqide hazirghiche birer melumatqa ige bolalmighanliqim ichimni achchiq qilmaqta.
Mushu yili 13 – féwralda abduréhim ötkür tetqiqatchisi, enqere ghazi uniwérsitéti edebiyat fakultétining proféssori hülya qasapoghlu chengel xanim «uyghur edebiyati we wapatining 20 – yilliqi munasiwiti bilen abduréhim tileshup ötkürni xatirilesh» dégen témida türkiyening enqere shehiride léksiye bergende, 2015- yili 5- öktebirde yeni ötkür ependi wapat bolghan künde abduréhim ötkür wapatining 20 – yilliqini xatirilesh munasiwiti bilen xelqaraliq ilmiy muhakime yighini ötküzidighanliqini qeyt qilghaniken. Ötkür ependige bolghan hörmitimning küchlüklükidin bolghan bolsa kérek, bu uchurni anglap intayin söyüngenidim. Bügün (yekshenbe) bu yighinning pilanlan’ghini boyiche ötküzülidighan yaki ötküzülmeydighanliqini bilish istikimning türtkiside hülya xanim bilen téléfon arqiliq alaqilishish we bu heqte qisqiche bolsimu sözlishish pursitige érishtim.
Hülya xanimning déyishiche, «uyghur edebiyati we wapatining 20 – yilliqi munasiwiti bilen abduréhim tileshup ötkürni xatirilesh»témiliq yighin hülya xanimning atisining wapati (allah makanini zhennet qilghay),apisining hélihem balnistta bolushi (késilige shipaliq tileymen) dek sewebler tüpeyli kéchiktürülüptu. Hülya xanim, «mushu yil chiqip kétishtin ilgiri dékabir aylirining axirlirida bolsimu – türkiyede ‹qutadghu bilik, uyghur edebiyati we abduréhim tileshup ötkür wapatining 20 – yilliqini xatirilesh› ilmiy muhakime yighini ötküzighanliqi» ni tekitlidi.
Men pütün hayatini abduréhim ötkür eserliri, ottura asiya we uyghur edebiyatigha béghishlighan bu méhnetkesh ustazgha éhtiramimni bildürimen shundaqla hemme ishlirigha utuq tileymen.
Hülya xanim ötkür ependi wapat bolghan 5 –öktebirde pilanlighan muhakime yighinini waqtida ötküzelmigenlikidin üküngen bolsimu, bélini qoyiwetmestin ‹yil axirighiche bolsimu ötküzimen› diwédi. Tesirlenmey turalmidim. Mendek qolidin qelbini yashqa chilap turup dua qilishtin bashqa ish kelmeydighanlarning qilalaydighan birla ishi bar, u bolsimu ötkürge zhanabi allahtin rehmet we meghpiret telep qilish, hülya xanimlargha hemmide utuq wesalametlik tileshtur.
Merhum shairimiz abduréhim ötkürning hayat hékayisi, küresh musapiliri hemmeylengeayan bolsimu, melumatlirimizni yéngilash yüzisidin töwendiki uchurlarnimu ilawe qilip qoydum:
1923-yili kumulda dunyagha kelgen.
1931-yili ailisi bilen birlikte gensugha ketken.
1936-yili ürümchige qaytip toluq otturigha kirgen.
1939-yili shinzhang uniwérsitétigha kirgen we rus edebiyati bilen tonoshushqa bashlighan.
1939,1940- yillarda edebiyat –senet saheside méwe bérishke bashlighan.
1942-yili uniwérsitétni pütküzgen.
1942,1943- yili ‹iyul boranliri› dégendek shéirlirini yazghan.
1948-yili ‹tarim boyliri› namliq shéirlar toplimi élan qilin’ghan.
1985-yili iiz› romani neshir qilin’ghan.
1988-yili ‹ömür menzilliri› namliq shéirlar toplimi élan qilin’ghan.
1989-yili ‹oyghan’ghan zémin› namliq romanini neshir qildurghan.
1995- yili 5- öktebirde ürümchide wapat bolghan.(Autori:Aq-hun)