Ghol Hujeyre Toghursida Omumi Cheshenche

Ghol Hujere Toghursida Omumi Cheshenche

Dr. Memet Emin

Ghol Hujeyre digen nime (What is stem cells) ?

Ghol hujeyre (Stem Cells) diginimiz hayatliqning desliwide we osup yitilish jeryanida bolunush arqiliq her xil oxshimighan hujeyrilerge tereqqi qilish iqtidarigha ige bolghan hujeyrilerni korsitidu

Insanlar we sut emguchi haywanlarning bedini 200 din artuq oxshimighan turdiki tiriliyunlighan hujeyriler toplimidin terkip tapqan bolup, ghol hujeyre bolsa bu hujeyrelilerning atisi hisaplinidu. Ghol hujeyride yalghuz ozini kopeyteleydighan (self renew) alahidilik bolup qalmastin belki bolunush arqiliq janliqlar bedinidiki 200 din artuq oxshimghan shu tiriliyunlighan hujeyrilerge aylinalesh (differentiation) alahidilikige ige.

<> Jornilidiki bir maqalida ghol hujeyrisige mundaq terip birilgen, “Ghol hujeyre bolmisa, jarahet mengu saqaymaydu, tire we qan usluksiz ozini ozi toluqlap turmaydu, uruqlanghan tuxum yitilip bowaq bolmaydu, hem shundaqla bowaq yitilip balaghetke yetken adem bolmaydu.”

Yighinchaqlap eytiqanda ghol hujeyre bedendiki barliq eza we organlardiki hujeyrilerning barliqqa kilishi we ularning dawamliq mewjut bolup turushining asasi.

Ghol hujeyrisini adette kilish menbesi we alahidilikige asasen torelme ghol hujeyrisi (embryonic stem cells) we balaghetke yetken ghol hujeyre (adult stem cells) yaki beden ghol hujeyrisi (somatic stem cells) dep ikki xilgha ayrish mumkin. Torelme ghol hujeyrisi bolunush arqiliq bedendiki her qandaq hujeyrige aylinish alahidilikige ige. Balaghetke yetken ghol hujeyre bolsa bolunush arqiliq bedendiki bir qisim hujeyrilerge aylinish alahidilikige ige.

Ghol hujeyre tetqiqati (Stem cells research)

Tetqiqatchilar ghol hujeyre tetqiqatini 1950-yilliri bashlighan bolup, eyni waqitta tetqiqatchilar songek ilikide qan ishlep chiqarghuch ghol hujeyre (hematopoietic stem cells) we songek ilik qurulma ghol hujeyre (bone marrow stromal stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells) din ibaret ikki xil ghol hujeyrining barliqini bayqighan. Qan ishlep chiqarghuch ghol hujeyresi (hematopoietic stem cells) digende bolunush arqiliq qandiki her xil hujeyrilerge aylinaylaydighan ghol hujeyrini kozde tutidu. Songek ilik qurulma ghol hujeyre (bone marrow stromal stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells) si bolsa bolunup tereqqi qilish arqiliq songek, yumshaq songek, may, tala toqulma (fiber tissue) hujeyrilerge aylinalaydighan ghol hujeyrini kozde tutidu.

Tetqiqatqchilar yiqinqi yillardin buyan balaghetke yetken ghol hujeyre tetqiqatida kopligen ilgirleshlerge ige bolghan we yurek, minge, muskul, tire, jiger qatarliq eza we organlardimu ghol hujeyrining barliqini bayqighan.

1981-yiligha kelgende tetqiqatchilar, chashqandin tunji torelmey ghol hujeyrisini yitildurup chiqqan. Insanlarning tunji torelme ghol hujeyrisi bolsa 1998-yili yitildurulgen. Insanlarning torelme ghol hujeyrisini, tetqiqat uchun pidayilarning qoshulushi arqiliq sunni uruqlandurulghan torelmidin ajirtip chiqqan.

Undin bashqa tetqiqatchilar chonglar ghol hujeyrisini qayta porogurammilashturush arqiliq yingi bir xil ghol hujeyrisini yitildurup chiqqan bolup, bu yitildurup chiqilghan kop iqtidarliq ghol hujeyre (induced pluripotent stem cells. iPSCs) dep atilidu.

Ghol Hujeyre bilen bedendiki bashqa hujeyrilerning periqi

Ghol hujeyrisini bashqa hujeyrilerdin towendiki 3 xil alahidiliki arqiliq periqlendurush mumkin.

  1. Birinjidin ghol hujeyre bolunup kopiyish arqiliq oz ozini kopeytish (self renew) alahidilikige ige, bezide uzun mezgillik herketsiz jeryandin kiyinmu oz ozini kopeyteleydu.
  2. Ikkinjidin ghol hujeyre alahide xizmet texsimatigha ige bolmighan iptidayi (undifferentiated or unspecialized) hujeyre.
  3. Uchunjidin ghol hujeyre melum fizilogiyelik we yaki tejirbe sharahiti arqiliq toqulma we organlarda xas bolghan alahide iqtidargha ige hujeyrilerge (differentiated, or specialized) aylinish alahidilikige ige.

Torelme ghol hujyerisi (embryonic stem cells) bolsa bolunup kopyish arqiliq bedendiki her qandaq alahide iqtidarliq hujeyrige aylinalaydu.

Beden ghol hujeyrisi yaki balaghetke yetken ghol hujeyre (Somatic or adult stem cells) bolsa kopligen toqulmilar we organlarda, bolunush arqiliq kopeygende, hem ozining ghol hujeyrilik alhidilikini saqlap qilish, hem bashqa alahide iqtidarliq hujeyrilerge aylinip, zexme bolghan we yaki olgen hujeyrilerning ornini toluqlash alahidilikige ige.

Mesilen qizil qan hujeyrisining omuri adette 120 kun bolup, olgen qizil qan hujeyrisining ornini qandiki ghol hujeyre toluqlap turidu. Zexmilinish we bashqa sewepler tupeylidin beden kop miqdarda qan hujeyriliri yoqatqanda, songek ilikidiki qan ishlep chiqirish ghol hujeyliri derhal herketke kilip, bolunup qandiki her xil hujyerilerge aylinsh arqiliq yoqalghan qan hujeylirini toluqlaydu. Tire zexmilengende tiridiki ghol hujeyre bolunush arqiliq tiridiki her xil munasiwetlik hujeyrilerge aylinidu.

Bedendiki bashqa hujeyriler bolsa ozidin bashqa hujeyrilerge aylinalmaydu. Ular bolunup kopeygendin kiyinmu peqet eslidiki hujeyre alahidilikini saqlap qalidu.

Yighinchaqlap eyitqanda, ghol hujeyrining bedendiki bashqa hujeyrilerge oxshimaydighan eng muhim alahidiliki shuki ghol hujeyre tixi bedendiki bashqa hujeyrilerge oxshash alahide xizmet texsimatigha ige bolmighan iptidayi (undifferentiated) hujeyre bolup, hem oz ozini kopyetip saqlap qilish (self renew) hem muhapiq sharahit yitilgende, alahide xizmet texsimatigha ige yitilgen huyrige aylinish (differentiated, or specialized) alahidilikke ige.

Torelme Ghol Hujeyre (Embryonic stem cells)

Haywanlar we yaki insanlar jinsi munasiwet qilghandin kiyin erning uruqi ayalning tuximi bilen birikip uruqlanghan tuxum (fertilized egg) hasil qilidu. Uruqlanghan tuxum bir hujeyre bolup, bolunup kopiyish arqiliq torelme hujeyrisi (blastocyst) ge tereqqi qilidu, eger bu torelme hujeyrisi bala yatqu timidin orun ilip, tereqqi qilsa torelmi (embryo) ge aylinidu. Bu torelme tereqqi qilsa bowaq bolup yitilidu we ying bir hayatliq dunyagha kilidu.

Torelmey ghol hujeyre bir hepte ichidiki torelme hujeyre (blastocyst) din yeni tixi bala yatqu timidin orun almighan torelme (embryo) din ilinghan hujeyre torelme ghol hujeyrisi (embryonic stem cells) hisaplinidu. Torelmidin torelme ghol hujeyrisini chiqiriwalghandin kiyin bu torelme tereqqi qilip bowaq bolup yitilish pursitini yoqutidu. Mundaqche eyitqan dunyagha kelmekchi bolghan bir yingi hayatliq nabut bolidu.

Hazir bar bolghan torelme ghol hujeyrining kopunchisi eghir ayaq bolghan ayalning bala yatqusidiki torelmidin ilinghan bolmastin belki tejirbexanida sunni uruqlandurush arqiliq yitildurulgen torelmdin ilinghan.

Undin bashqa tetqiqatchilar sut emguchi haywanlarning beden hujeyrisi bilen tuxum arqiliq torelme yitildurup, uningdin torelme ghol hujeyrisige ige bolmaqta. Bu xil texnika beden hujeyre yadro almashturush (somatic cell nuclear transfer) dep atilidighan bolup, aldi bilen tuxumning yadrosini yeni DNA chiqirip tashlap, uning ornigha beden hujeyrisi (somatic cells) ning yadrosini silish arqiliq “uruqlanghan tuxum” peyda qilish, we bu arqiliq torelme yitildurup chiqish. Bu adette kilon qilish texnikisi depmu atilidu.

Yiqinda tetqiqatchilar bala hemri suyi (amniotic fluid) dinmu torelme ghol hujeyrige oxshash alahidilikke ige hujeyrilerining barliqini, we bu hujeyrilerning torelme ghol hujeyrisige oxshash bolunush arqiliq bedendiki her qandaq hujeyrige aylinish alahidilikige ige ikenligini bayqighan.

Tetqiqatchilar torelme ghol hujeyrige ige bolghandin kiyin, ularni tejirbexanida suni yitildurup kopeytidu, we melum basquchta bu hujeyriler tonglutulup saqlinidu.

Beden yaki Balaghetke Yetken Ghol Hujeyre (Somatic or adult stem cells)

Toluq yitilgen haywan we yaki insanlar (bowaq yaki balaghetke yetkenler) ning bedendiki her xil organlardin we ezalardin, shundaqla bala hemri (placenta) din, bala kindik qini (umbilical cord blood) din ayrip chiqilghan ghol hujeyriler balaghetke yetken ghol hujeyre (adult stem cells) yaki beden ghol hujeyre (somatic stem cells) hisaplinidu.

Balaghetke yetken ghol hujeyre bolunush arqiliq bedendiki ozige tewe bolghan organ, eza we yaki toqulmilardiki bir we bir nechche xil hujeyrilerge aylinish alahidilikige ige Mesilen Songek ilikdiki qan ishlep chiqarghuchi ghol hujeyre (hematopoietic stem cells) bolunup tereqqi qilish arqiliq qandiki her xil hujeyrilerge aylinalaydu, biraq u hergizmu nirwa hujyerisi we yaki yurek muskul hujeyrisige aylinalmaydu. Gerche beziler bir toqulmidiki ghol hujeyrisidin putunley oxshimighan bashqa bir toqulmidiki hujeyrini yitildurup chiqish mumkin dep qarighan bolsimu, biraq bu yenila talash tartish boliwatqan mesile.

Hazirgha qeder bedendiki minge, songek iliki, qan tomur, muskul, tire, chish, yurek, uchey, jiger, tuxumdan we tashshaq qatarliq nurghun organ we ezalardin balaghetke yetken ghol hujeye ayrilip chiqilghan. Bu ghol hujeyriler ozi tewe bolghan eza we organlarning melum qismigha orunlashqan bolup, adette kopiyishke hajiti chushkiche uzun mezgil herketsiz halitini saqlap qalidu. Peqet toqulmilar zexmige uchurghanda we yaki toqulmilar kisel bolup olgende, andin derhal herketke kilip, bolunush arqiliq kopiyip, zexme bolghan we yaki olgen hujeyre we yaki toqulmilarning ornini alidu.

Adette her bir toqulmida nahayti az miqdarda ghol hujeyre bolidu; ular bedendin ayrilghanda ularning bolunushi cheklimige uchuraydu, we kop miqdarda ghol hujeyre yitildurush qiyinlishidu. Nurghun tejirbexanilardiki tetqiqatchilar kop miqdarda ghol hujeyre yitildurushning we ularning bolunup kopiyishini monupul qilishning, hem shundaqla ularni her xil kisel we zexmilerni dawalashta ishlitishning amalini tipishqa tirishchanliq korsetmekte. Mesilen tetqiqatchilar ghol hujeyrini diyabit kisilige giriptar bolghanlarning insulin ishlep chiqiridighan hujeyrilerning xizmitini eslige kelturushke, yurek kisilige giraptar bolghanlarning zexme bolghan yurek toqulmilirini eslige kelturushke ishlitip, ularni dawalap saqaytishning yolini izdimekte.

Torelme ghol hujeyre bilen balaghetke yetken hol hujeyrining periqi

Torelme ghol hujeyre bilen balaghetke yetken ghol hujeyre arisidiki muhim bir periq, ularning bolunush arqiliq ozgureleydighan hujeyrilerning tur sani tuptin periqlinidu. Yeni torelme ghol hujeyre bedendiki barliq hujeyrilerge ozgureleshtek alahidilikke ige. Balaghetke yetken ghol hujeyre bolsa ozi mewjut bolghan organ we toqulmilardiki bir we bir nechche xil hujeyrilerge ozgureleydu.

Torelmey ghol hujeyrini tejirbexanida yitildurup kopeyitmek nisbeten asan. Balaghetke yetken ghol hujeyrini toqulmilardin ayrip chiqish, yitildurush we kopeytish xilila qiyin.

Ghol hujeyresining dawalashta ishlitilishi we hel qilishqa tigishlik mesililer

Hazir songek ilikidin we bala kindik qini (umbilical cord blood) din ayrip chiqilghan balaghetke yetken ghol hujeyre (adult stem cells) 80 xil oxshimighan kiselliklerni dawalashta ishlitilmekte.

Ghol hujeyrining tetqiqati we uning kisel dawalashta ishlitilishi nahayti keng bolup, hazirqi eng muhim bolghan mesile towendikilerni iniqlap chiqishtin ibaret.

(1) Bolunmigen iptidayi (undifferentiated) ghol hujeyrening qandaq sharahitta bolunup bashqa hujeyriler (differentiated cells) ge aylinidighanliqini iniqlap chiqish.

(2) Rak, tughma kiseller qatarliq bezi ighir kisellikler hujeyre bolunushning normalsizlighidin kilip chiqqan kisellikler bolup, bu kiselliklerning kilip chiqishi toghursida chushenchini tiximu iniqlash, we bu kiselliklerni dawalashning amalini tipip chiqish.

(3) Hujeyre bolunushning qanunyetlirini tiximu iniq chushunush, hujeyre bolunushni umut qilghan yolunushke bashliyaldighan amillarni tipip chiqish.

(4) Ghol hujeyrining ying dorilarni tekshurush we sinaq qilishta ishlitish.

(5) Ghol hujeyre arqiliq ihtiyajliq hujeyre we toqulma yitildurup chiqish, we uni dawalashta ishlitish, yeni organ we toqulma almashturshni yiterlik menbe bilen teminlesh.

Hazir sogha qilinghan organ we toqulmilar zexme bolghan we yaki olgen organ toqulmilarning ornini ilishta ishlitilmekte, biraq ihtiyaj nahayti chong bolghachqa, ishlitishke bolidighan organ we toqulma menbesi bekla cheklik. Ghol hujeyre tetqiqati bu mesilini hel qilip, Alzimir kisili, umurutqa zexmisi, minge qan tomur kisili, ighir derijidiki koyuk, yurek kisili, diyabit kisili, rumatizim kisili qatarlqi kisellerni dawalashta yiterlik hujeyre we toqulmilar bilen temin itishi mumkin.

Mesilen ghol hujeyre tetqiqati, saghlam yurek muskul hujeyrisini tejirbexanida yitildurup, andin bu hujeyrilerni yurek kisili bar bimarlargha silish arqiliq ularning yurek kisilini dawalashni riyalliqqa aylandurushi mumkin. Chashqanda ilip birilghan tejirbilerning netijisi shuni ispatlidiki songek ilikidiki qurulma hujeyrisi zexme bolghan yurekke yotkelgende, zexme bolghan yurekning yaxshilinishini ilgiri surgen.

Insanlarning torelme ghol hujeyrisi tetqiqati 1998-yili bashlanghan bolup, Dr. James Thomson tunji torelme ghol hujeyrisini Wisconsin Universitida yitildurup chiqqan. Gerche tetqiqatchilar torelme ghol hujeyresini her xil kiselliklerni bolupmu Parkinson we Alzimir kisilini dawalashta hel qilghuch rol aynaydu dep qaraydighan bolsimu, biraq uning kiselliklerni dawalashta ishlitilishi nahayti bashlanghuch halette. Torelme ghol hujeyresini kiselliklerni dawalashta sinaq qilip ishlitish tunji bolup 2009-yili 1-ayning axirida bashlanghan.

Insanlar ghol hujeyre tetqiqati bilen eneniwi exlaq arisidiki toqunushlar

Insanlar torelme ghol hujeyre tetqiqati we eneniwi exlaq arisida bezi toqunushlar mewjut. Uning asasliq sewebi, tetqiqatchilar insanlar torelme ghol hujeyrisge ige bolush uchun kelguside yitilip yingi bir janliqqa aylinidighan torelmini weyran qilishqa, yeni kelgusi tughulmaqchi bolghan bir bowaqni qurban qilishqa toghura kilidighan bolghachqa, bezilerni uni bala alghuziwitish bilen oxshash dep qarisa, yene beziler uni bir ademni olturgen bilen barawer dep qaraydu. Shunga nurghun kishiler insanlarning torelme ghol hujeyre tetqiqatigha qarshi turup kelmekte.

Undin bashqa ghol hujeyre tetqiqatidiki eng muhim texnikining biri bolghan torelmini kilon qilish texnikisi, kelguside ademni kilon qilishqa ishlitish ihtimali bolghanliqi uchun, nurghun kishiler insanlar torelme ghol hujeyre tetqiqatigha qarshi turup kelmekte.

Posted by Memet Emin at 12:01 AM

http://saghlam-bolung.blogspot.de/2011/08/ghol-hujere-toghursida-omumi-cheshenche.html

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