Ageing: The girls who never grow older


A handful of girls seem to defy one of the biggest certainties in life: ageing. Virginia Hughes reports on the families wrestling with a condition they can’t explain, and the scientist who believes that these children could hold the key to immortality.

Richard Walker has been trying to conquer ageing since he was a 26-year-old free-loving hippie. It was the 1960s, an era marked by youth: Vietnam War protests, psychedelic drugs, sexual revolutions. The young Walker relished the culture of exultation, of joie de vivre, and yet was also acutely aware of its passing. He was haunted by the knowledge that ageing would eventually steal away his vitality – that with each passing day his body was slightly less robust, slightly more decayed. One evening he went for a drive in his convertible and vowed that by his 40th birthday, he would find a cure for ageing.

Walker became a scientist to understand why he was mortal. “Certainly it wasn’t due to original sin and punishment by God, as I was taught by nuns in catechism,” he says. “No, it was the result of a biological process, and therefore is controlled by a mechanism that we can understand.”

Scientists have published several hundred theories of ageing, and have tied it to a wide variety of biological processes. But no one yet understands how to integrate all of this disparate information.

Walker, now 74, believes that the key to ending ageing may lie in a rare disease that doesn’t even have a real name, “Syndrome X”. He has identified four girls with this condition, marked by what seems to be a permanent state of infancy, a dramatic developmental arrest. He suspects that the disease is caused by a glitch somewhere in the girls’ DNA. His quest for immortality depends on finding it.

(Thinkstock)

(Thinkstock)

It’s the end of another busy week and MaryMargret Williams is shuttling her brood home from school. She drives an enormous SUV, but her six children and their coats and bags and snacks manage to fill every inch. The three big kids are bouncing in the very back. Sophia, 10, with a mouth of new braces, is complaining about a boy-crazy friend. She sits next to Anthony, seven, and Aleena, five, who are glued to something on their mother’s iPhone. The three little kids squirm in three car seats across the middle row. Myah, two, is mining a cherry slushy, and Luke, one, is pawing a bag of fresh crickets bought for the family gecko.

Finally there’s Gabrielle, who’s the smallest child, and the second oldest, at nine years old. She has long, skinny legs and a long, skinny ponytail, both of which spill out over the edges of her car seat. While her siblings giggle and squeal, Gabby’s dusty-blue eyes roll up towards the ceiling. By the calendar, she’s almost an adolescent. But she has the buttery skin, tightly clenched fingers and hazy awareness of a newborn.

Back in 2004, when MaryMargret and her husband, John, went to the hospital to deliver Gabby, they had no idea anything was wrong. They knew from an ultrasound that she would have clubbed feet, but so had their other daughter, Sophia, who was otherwise healthy. And because MaryMargret was a week early, they knew Gabby would be small, but not abnormally so. “So it was such a shock to us when she was born,” MaryMargret says.

Gabby came out purple and limp. Doctors stabilised her in the neonatal intensive care unit and then began a battery of tests. Within days the Williamses knew their new baby had lost the genetic lottery. Her brain’s frontal lobe was smooth, lacking the folds and grooves that allow neurons to pack in tightly. Her optic nerve, which runs between the eyes and the brain, was atrophied, which would probably leave her blind. She had two heart defects. Her tiny fists couldn’t be pried open. She had a cleft palate and an abnormal swallowing reflex, which meant she had to be fed through a tube in her nose. “They started trying to prepare us that she probably wouldn’t come home with us,” John says. Their family priest came by to baptise her.

Baby (SPL)

Unlike typical babies, Gabby Williams was born with a smooth frontal lobe in her brain, along with a number of other developmental defects (SPL)

Day after day, MaryMargret and John shuttled between Gabby in the hospital and 13-month-old Sophia at home. The doctors tested for a few known genetic syndromes, but they all came back negative. Nobody had a clue what was in store for her. Her strong Catholic family put their faith in God. “MaryMargret just kept saying, ‘She’s coming home, she’s coming home’,” recalls her sister, Jennie Hansen. And after 40 days, she did.

Gabby cried a lot, loved to be held, and ate every three hours, just like any other newborn. But of course she wasn’t. Her arms would stiffen and fly up to her ears, in a pose that the family nicknamed her “Harley-Davidson”. At four months old she started having seizures. Most puzzling and problematic, she still wasn’t growing. John and MaryMargret took her to specialist after specialist: a cardiologist, a gastroenterologist, a geneticist, a neurologist, an ophthalmologist and an orthopaedist. “You almost get your hopes up a little – ’This is exciting! We’re going to the gastro doctor, and maybe he’ll have some answers’,” MaryMargret says. But the experts always said the same thing: nothing could be done.

The first few years with Gabby were stressful. When she was one and Sophia two, the Williamses drove from their home in Billings, Montana, to MaryMargret’s brother’s home outside of St Paul, Minnesota. For nearly all of those 850 miles, Gabby cried and screamed. This continued for months until doctors realised she had a run-of-the-mill bladder infection. Around the same period, she acquired a severe respiratory infection that left her struggling to breathe. John and MaryMargret tried to prepare Sophia for the worst, and even planned which readings and songs to use at Gabby’s funeral. But the tiny toddler toughed it out.

While Gabby’s hair and nails grew, her body wasn’t getting bigger. She was developing in subtle ways, but at her own pace. MaryMargret vividly remembers a day at work when she was pushing Gabby’s stroller down a hallway with skylights in the ceiling. She looked down at Gabby and was shocked to see her eyes reacting to the sunlight. “I thought, ‘Well, you’re seeing that light!’” MaryMargret says. Gabby wasn’t blind, after all.

Despite the hardships, the couple decided they wanted more children. In 2007 MaryMargret had Anthony, and the following year she had Aleena. By this time, the Williamses had stopped trudging to specialists, accepting that Gabby was never going to be fixed. “At some point we just decided,” John recalls, “it’s time to make our peace.”

Mortal questions

When Walker began his scientific career, he focused on the female reproductive system as a model of “pure ageing”: a woman’s ovaries, even in the absence of any disease, slowly but inevitably slide into the throes of menopause. His studies investigated how food, light, hormones and brain chemicals influence fertility in rats. But academic science is slow. He hadn’t cured ageing by his 40th birthday, nor by his 50th or 60th. His life’s work was tangential, at best, to answering the question of why we’re mortal, and he wasn’t happy about it. He was running out of time.

So he went back to the drawing board. As he describes in his book, Why We Age, Walker began a series of thought experiments to reflect on what was known and not known about ageing.

Ageing is usually defined as the slow accumulation of damage in our cells, organs and tissues, ultimately causing the physical transformations that we all recognise in elderly people. Jaws shrink and gums recede. Skin slacks. Bones brittle, cartilage thins and joints swell. Arteries stiffen and clog. Hair greys. Vision dims. Memory fades. The notion that ageing is a natural, inevitable part of life is so fixed in our culture that we rarely question it. But biologists have been questioning it for a long time.

DNA (SPL)

Our DNA mechanics become less effective with age (SPL)

It’s a harsh world out there, and even young cells are vulnerable. It’s like buying a new car: the engine runs perfectly but is still at risk of getting smashed on the highway. Our young cells survive only because they have a slew of trusty mechanics on call. Take DNA, which provides the all-important instructions for making proteins. Every time a cell divides, it makes a near-perfect copy of its three-billion-letter code. Copying mistakes happen frequently along the way, but we have specialised repair enzymes to fix them, like an automatic spellcheck. Proteins, too, are ever vulnerable. If it gets too hot, they twist into deviant shapes that keep them from working. But here again, we have a fixer: so-called ‘heat shock proteins’ that rush to the aid of their misfolded brethren. Our bodies are also regularly exposed to environmental poisons, such as the reactive and unstable ‘free radical’ molecules that come from the oxidisation of the air we breathe. Happily, our tissues are stocked with antioxidants and vitamins that neutralise this chemical damage. Time and time again, our cellular mechanics come to the rescue.

Which leads to the biologists’ longstanding conundrum: if our bodies are so well tuned, why, then, does everything eventually go to hell?

One theory is that it all boils down to the pressures of evolution. Humans reproduce early in life, well before ageing rears its ugly head. All of the repair mechanisms that are important in youth – the DNA editors, the heat shock proteins, the antioxidants – help the young survive until reproduction, and are therefore passed down to future generations. But problems that show up after we’re done reproducing cannot be weeded out by evolution. Hence, ageing.

Most scientists say that ageing is not caused by any one culprit but by the breakdown of many systems at once. Our sturdy DNA mechanics become less effective with age, meaning that our genetic code sees a gradual increase in mutations. Telomeres, the sequences of DNA that act as protective caps on the ends of our chromosomes, get shorter every year. Epigenetic messages, which help turn genes on and off, get corrupted with time. Heat shock proteins run down, leading to tangled protein clumps that muck up the smooth workings of a cell. Faced with all of this damage, our cells try to adjust by changing the way they metabolise nutrients and store energy. To ward off cancer, they even know how to shut themselves down. But eventually cells stop dividing and stop communicating with each other, triggering the decline we see from the outside.

The telomeres that protect our chromosomes get progressively shorter as we age (SPL)

The telomeres that protect our chromosomes get progressively shorter as we age (SPL)

Scientists trying to slow the ageing process tend to focus on one of these interconnected pathways at a time. Some researchers have shown, for example, that mice on restricted-calorie diets live longer than normal. Other labs have reported that giving mice rapamycin, a drug that targets an important cell-growth pathway, boosts their lifespan. Still other groups are investigating substances that restore telomeres, DNA repair enzymes and heat shock proteins.

During his thought experiments, Walker wondered whether all of these scientists were fixating on the wrong thing. What if all of these various types of cellular damages were the consequences of ageing, but not the root cause of it? He came up with an alternative theory: that ageing is the unavoidable fallout of our development.

The idea sat on the back burner of Walker’s mind until the evening of 23 October 2005. He was working in his home office when his wife called out to him to join her in the family room. She knew he would want to see what was on TV: an episode of Dateline about a young girl who seemed to be “frozen in time”. Walker watched the show and couldn’t believe what he was seeing. Brooke Greenberg was 12 years old, but just 13 pounds (6kg) and 27 inches (69cm) long. Her doctors had never seen anything like her condition, and suspected the cause was a random genetic mutation. “She literally is the Fountain of Youth,” her father, Howard Greenberg, said.

Walker was immediately intrigued. He had heard of other genetic diseases, such as progeria and Werner syndrome, which cause premature ageing in children and adults respectively. But this girl seemed to be different. She had a genetic disease that stopped her development and with it, Walker suspected, the ageing process. Brooke Greenberg, in other words, could help him test his theory.

Uneven growth

Brooke was born a few weeks premature, with many birth defects. Her paediatrician labeled her with Syndrome X, not knowing what else to call it.

After watching the show, Walker tracked down Howard Greenberg’s address. Two weeks went by before Walker heard back, and after much discussion he was allowed to test Brooke. He was sent Brooke’s medical records as well as blood samples for genetic testing. In 2009, his team published a brief report describing her case.

Walker’s analysis found that Brooke’s organs and tissues were developing at different rates. Her mental age, according to standardised tests, was between one and eight months. Her teeth appeared to be eight years old; her bones, 10 years. She had lost all of her baby fat, and her hair and nails grew normally, but she had not reached puberty. Her telomeres were considerably shorter than those of healthy teenagers, suggesting that her cells were ageing at an accelerated rate.

All of this was evidence of what Walker dubbed “developmental disorganisation”. Brooke’s body seemed to be developing not as a coordinated unit, he wrote, but rather as a collection of individual, out-of-sync parts. “She is not simply ‘frozen in time’,” Walker wrote. “Her development is continuing, albeit in a disorganised fashion.”

(SPL)

(SPL)

The big question remained: why was Brooke developmentally disorganised? It wasn’t nutritional and it wasn’t hormonal. The answer had to be in her genes. Walker suspected that she carried a glitch in a gene (or a set of genes, or some kind of complex genetic programme) that directed healthy development. There must be some mechanism, after all, that allows us to develop from a single cell to a system of trillions of cells. This genetic programme, Walker reasoned, would have two main functions: it would initiate and drive dramatic changes throughout the organism, and it would also coordinate these changes into a cohesive unit.

Ageing, he thought, comes about because this developmental programme, this constant change, never turns off. From birth until puberty, change is crucial: we need it to grow and mature. After we’ve matured, however, our adult bodies don’t need change, but rather maintenance. “If you’ve built the perfect house, you would want to stop adding bricks at a certain point,” Walker says. “When you’ve built a perfect body, you’d want to stop screwing around with it. But that’s not how evolution works.” Because natural selection cannot influence traits that show up after we have passed on our genes, we never evolved a “stop switch” for development, Walker says. So we keep adding bricks to the house. At first this doesn’t cause much damage – a sagging roof here, a broken window there. But eventually the foundation can’t sustain the additions, and the house topples. This, Walker says, is ageing.

Brooke was special because she seemed to have been born with a stop switch. But finding the genetic culprit turned out to be difficult. Walker would need to sequence Brooke’s entire genome, letter by letter.

That never happened. Much to Walker’s chagrin, Howard Greenberg abruptly severed their relationship. The Greenbergs have not publicly explained why they ended their collaboration with Walker, and declined to comment for this article.

Second chance

In August 2009, MaryMargret Williams saw a photo of Brooke on the cover of People magazine, just below the headline “Heartbreaking mystery: The 16-year-old baby”. She thought Brooke sounded a lot like Gabby, so contacted Walker.

After reviewing Gabby’s details, Walker filled her in on his theory. Testing Gabby’s genes, he said, could help him in his mission to end age-related disease – and maybe even ageing itself.

This didn’t sit well with the Williamses. John, who works for the Montana Department of Corrections, often interacts with people facing the reality of our finite time on Earth. “If you’re spending the rest of your life in prison, you know, it makes you think about the mortality of life,” he says. What’s important is not how long you live, but rather what you do with the life you’re given. MaryMargret feels the same way. For years she has worked in a local dermatology office. She knows all too well the cultural pressures to stay young, and wishes more people would embrace the inevitability of getting older. “You get wrinkles, you get old, that’s part of the process,” she says.

Botox, a solution for some who wish to stave off the signs of ageing (SPL)

Botox, a solution for some who wish to stave off the signs of ageing (SPL)

But Walker’s research also had its upside. First and foremost, it could reveal whether the other Williams children were at risk of passing on Gabby’s condition.

For several months, John and MaryMargret hashed out the pros and cons. They were under no illusion that the fruits of Walker’s research would change Gabby’s condition, nor would they want it to. But they did want to know why. “What happened, genetically, to make her who she is?” John says. And more importantly: “Is there a bigger meaning for it?”

John and MaryMargret firmly believe that God gave them Gabby for a reason. Walker’s research offered them a comforting one: to help treat Alzheimer’s and other age-related diseases. “Is there a small piece that Gabby could present to help people solve these awful diseases?” John asks. “Thinking about it, it’s like, no, that’s for other people, that’s not for us.” But then he thinks back to the day Gabby was born. “I was in that delivery room, thinking the same thing – this happens to other people, not us.”

Still not entirely certain, the Williamses went ahead with the research.

Amassing evidence

Walker published his theory in 2011, but he’s only the latest of many researchers to think along the same lines. “Theories relating developmental processes to ageing have been around for a very long time, but have been somewhat under the radar for most researchers,” says Joao Pedro de Magalhaes, a biologist at the University of Liverpool. In 1932, for example, English zoologist George Parker Bidder suggested that mammals have some kind of biological “regulator” that stops growth after the animal reaches a specific size. Ageing, Bidder thought, was the continued action of this regulator after growth was done.

Subsequent studies showed that Bidder wasn’t quite right; there are lots of marine organisms, for example, that never stop growing but age anyway. Still, his fundamental idea of a developmental programme leading to ageing has persisted.

For several years, Stuart Kim’s group at Stanford University has been comparing which genes are expressed in young and old nematode worms. It turns out that some genes involved in ageing also help drive development in youth.

Kim suggested that the root cause of ageing is the “drift”, or mistiming, of developmental pathways during the ageing process, rather than an accumulation of cellular damage.

Mice on restricted diets live longer (SPL)

Mice on restricted diets live longer (SPL)

Other groups have since found similar patterns in mice and primates. One study, for example, found that many genes turned on in the brains of old monkeys and humans are the same as those expressed in young brains, suggesting that ageing and development are controlled by some of the same gene networks.

Perhaps most provocative of all, some studies of worms have shown that shutting down essential development genes in adults significantly prolongs life. “We’ve found quite a lot of genes in which this happened – several dozen,” de Magalhaes says.

Nobody knows whether the same sort of developmental-programme genes exist in people. But say that they do exist. If someone was born with a mutation that completely destroyed this programme, Walker reasoned, that person would undoubtedly die. But if a mutation only partially destroyed it, it might lead to a condition like what he saw in Brooke Greenberg or Gabby Williams. So if Walker could identify the genetic cause of Syndrome X, then he might also have a driver of the ageing process in the rest of us.

And if he found that, then could it lead to treatments that slow – or even end – ageing? “There’s no doubt about it,” he says.

Public stage

After agreeing to participate in Walker’s research, the Williamses, just like the Greenbergs before them, became famous. In January 2011, when Gabby was six, the television channel TLC featured her on a one-hour documentary. The Williams family also appeared on Japanese television and in dozens of newspaper and magazine articles.

Other than becoming a local celebrity, though, Gabby’s everyday life hasn’t changed much since getting involved in Walker’s research. She spends her days surrounded by her large family. She’ll usually lie on the floor, or in one of several cushions designed to keep her spine from twisting into a C shape. She makes noises that would make an outsider worry: grunting, gasping for air, grinding her teeth. Her siblings think nothing of it. They play boisterously in the same room, somehow always careful not to crash into her. Once a week, a teacher comes to the house to work with Gabby. She uses sounds and shapes on an iPad to try to teach cause and effect. When Gabby turned nine, last October, the family made her a birthday cake and had a party, just as they always do. Most of her gifts were blankets, stuffed animals and clothes, just as they are every year. Her aunt Jennie gave her make-up.

Walker teamed up with geneticists at Duke University and screened the genomes of Gabby, John and MaryMargret. This test looked at the exome, the 2% of the genome that codes for proteins. From this comparison, the researchers could tell that Gabby did not inherit any exome mutations from her parents – meaning that it wasn’t likely that her siblings would be able to pass on the condition to their kids. “It was a huge relief – huge,” MaryMargret says.

Still, the exome screening didn’t give any clues as to what was behind Gabby’s disease. Gabby carries several mutations in her exome, but none in a gene that would make sense of her condition. All of us have mutations littering our genomes. So it’s impossible to know, in any single individual, whether a particular mutation is harmful or benign – unless you can compare two people with the same condition.

All girls

Luckily for him, Walker’s continued presence in the media has led him to two other young girls who he believes have the same syndrome. One of them, Mackenzee Wittke, of Alberta, Canada, is now five years old, with has long and skinny limbs, just like Gabby. “We have basically been stuck in a time warp,” says her mother, Kim Wittke. The fact that all of these possible Syndrome X cases are girls is intriguing – it could mean that the crucial mutation is on their X chromosome. Or it could just be a coincidence.

Walker is working with a commercial outfit in California to compare all three girls’ entire genome sequences – the exome plus the other 98% of DNA code, which is thought to be responsible for regulating the expression of protein-coding genes.

For his theory, Walker says, “this is do or die – we’re going to do every single bit of DNA in these girls. If we find a mutation that’s common to them all, that would be very exciting.”

But that seems like a very big if.

(Brain Smithson/Flickr)

(Brain Smithson/Flickr)

Most researchers agree that finding out the genes behind Syndrome X is a worthwhile scientific endeavour, as these genes will no doubt be relevant to our understanding of development. They’re far less convinced, though, that the girls’ condition has anything to do with ageing. “It’s a tenuous interpretation to think that this is going to be relevant to ageing,” says David Gems, a geneticist at University College London. It’s not likely that these girls will even make it to adulthood, he says, let alone old age.

It’s also not at all clear that these girls have the same condition. Even if they do, and even if Walker and his collaborators discover the genetic cause, there would still be a steep hill to climb. The researchers would need to silence the same gene or genes in laboratory mice, which typically have a lifespan of two or three years. “If that animal lives to be 10, then we’ll know we’re on the right track,” Walker says. Then they’d have to find a way to achieve the same genetic silencing in people, whether with a drug or some kind of gene therapy. And then they’d have to begin long and expensive clinical trials to make sure that the treatment was safe and effective. Science is often too slow, and life too fast.

End of life

On 24 October 2013, Brooke passed away. She was 20 years old. MaryMargret heard about it when a friend called after reading it in a magazine. The news hit her hard. “Even though we’ve never met the family, they’ve just been such a part of our world,” she says.

MaryMargret doesn’t see Brooke as a template for Gabby – it’s not as if she now believes that she only has 11 years left with her daughter. But she can empathise with the pain the Greenbergs must be feeling. “It just makes me feel so sad for them, knowing that there’s a lot that goes into a child like that,” she says. “You’re prepared for them to die, but when it finally happens, you can just imagine the hurt.”

Today Gabby is doing well. MaryMargret and John are no longer planning her funeral. Instead, they’re beginning to think about what would happen if Gabby outlives them. (Sophia has offered to take care of her sister.) John turned 50 this year, and MaryMargret will be 41. If there were a pill to end ageing, they say they’d have no interest in it. Quite the contrary: they look forward to getting older, because it means experiencing the new joys, new pains and new ways to grow that come along with that stage of life.

Richard Walker, of course, has a fundamentally different view of growing old. When asked why he’s so tormented by it, he says it stems from childhood, when he watched his grandparents physically and psychologically deteriorate. “There was nothing charming to me about sedentary old people, rocking chairs, hot houses with Victorian trappings,” he says. At his grandparents’ funerals, he couldn’t help but notice that they didn’t look much different in death than they did at the end of life. And that was heartbreaking. “To say I love life is an understatement,” he says. “Life is the most beautiful and magic of all things.”

If his hypothesis is correct – who knows? – it might one day help prevent disease and modestly extend life for millions of people. Walker is all too aware, though, that it would come too late for him. As he writes in his book: “I feel a bit like Moses who, after wandering in the desert for most years of his life, was allowed to gaze upon the Promised Land but not granted entrance into it.”

This is an edited version of an article originally published by Mosaic, and is reproduced under a Creative Commons licence. For more Mosaicarticles click here.

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http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20140520-the-girls-who-never-age?ocid=fbfut

Melike Amannisaxanning Hayati we Ijadiyetliri Toghrisida


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xelqimizge özining istidati we öchmes töhpiliri bilen tunushluq bolghan meshhur muqamshunas , Shaire melike amannisaxan texminen miladiye 1523-yili dulan tiznap deryasi boyidiki ghazköl yëza qomushluq mehellisi kembeghel bir utunchi ailiside dunyagha kelgen , Amannisa toghruluq tepsiliy hem ishenchlik melumatlar bizge molla ismetulla binni molla nimetulla möjizining «tewarixi musiqiyun» (muzikantlar tarixi) namliq qimmetlik esiri arqiliq yëtip kelgen bolup , U özining bu esiride amannisaxan toghruluq töwendikilerni yazidu : _
on yettinchi piri melike amannisaxan xënim idi , Bu xënim sultan abdureshidxanning xanishi idi , U öz dewrining yigane shairesi bolup , «diwan nefisi» namliq shërin bir kitap yazghanidi , Xettatliqta üstün maharetke ige idi ,Muzika ilimidimu shundaq kamalet igisi idiki ,Sultan uninggha taqetsiz ashiq we ixtiyarsiz sheyda bolghanidi .sultan öz wezir-emir we leshkerliri bilen paytexit yerkendin atlinip chiqip ,Tarim deryasini boylap ,Teklimakan deshtige shikargha yüzlendi we birnechche kün shu etrapta boldi .sultanning kichiliri puqrache yasinip ,Qunuchi musapir süpitide sehra yaqisidiki öylerde ghëribane qonidighan we shu yol bilen emeldarlarning reiyege zulum-setem qilghan-qilmighanliqini tekshüridighan aditi bar idi .bir küni shu yusunda ekrem atliq bir mehrimi bilen xarabi bir öyge qonuchi süpitide kirdi ,Bu öy mehmud atliq otunchining öyi idi ,Bu melike bolsa shu mehmud ning qizi idi ,Sultan öyning bolungida turghan bir temburni körüp qëlip ,Mehmudtin tembur chëlip birishni telep qildi ,Mehmud :«men tembur chëlishni bilmeymen ,Mushu qizimiz manga tembur ëlip ber dep xapa qilip aldurghan, Qizim chalidu » dep jawap berdi ,Sultan :«emse qizingiz chëlip bersun » didi .mehmud qizigha emir qildi ,Qiz temburni ëlip penjigah muqamigha shindaq chaldiki ,Sultan heyran qaldi ,Bulupmu qiz özi yazghan bir shiirni muqamgha sëlip oqughanda ,Sultan qizning muhabbitide küyüp bihush bolup ketti ,Shiirning bashlanmi bëyiti mundaq idi :
senga yüz shükür yarep bizge adil padishah qilding ,
feqir-miskin’ghe abdureshidxanni penah qilding .
bu ghezelning chüshürge bëyiti mundaq baghlan’ghanidi
nefisi kiche –kündüz qil dua tengri teqdisige ,
ki shahing heqqide qilmay dua qattiq gunah qilding .
ghezel tamam bolushigha sultan aldirap :«nefisi dëgen shair kim ?siz bu ghezelni nedin ögen’gen ?» dep sorighanidi .
<<xeqning ghezilinimu yad ëlip oqumdiken ? men nawaiy ,Fuzuliy , Zelilining shiërliridin bashqini oqumaymen ,Bu ghezel özümning , Nefisi dëgen mëning texellusum >> dep jawap berdi , Sultan uning qanche yashqa kirgenlikini sorighanidi , Atisi << 13 yashqa kirdi >> dep jawap berdi , Sultan tëximu heyran boldi . angghiche amannisa xënim qupup , Özi yazghan birnechche shiërlarni ekilip körsetti , Xëtining hösni özining hösni bilen beslishetti , Padishah bu xetni shunche kichik naresidening yazghanliqigha ishenmey :<< qëni emse ,Men qarap turay ,Bir shiir yëzip bëqing >> dëgenidi ,Qiz düwet-qelem we qeghez ëlip këlip töwendiki bëyitni yazdi :
yareb bu bende qildi ejep suizen menga ,
guya bu öyge ündi bu axsham tiken menga .

sultan küldi , Ishendim ,Manga hejwi qilmisila dëdi we mehmud bilen tashqirigha chiqip << biz hëli këlimiz >> dep këtip qaldi . u leshkergahigha bërip , Wezir-emirlerge bolghan ehwalni bayan qildi , Bëshigha taj kiyip , Üstige dewaj yapti , Derhal on qoy we etlesler teyyarlandi , Tün yërimda qiriq kishi mehmudning öyige këlip meqsedni bayan qildi , Padishah üzini ashkare qilip , Toy qilip qizni nikahigha aldi . xudayitaallah bu qizgha shundq eqil paraset ata qilghan idiki buni teriplep olturushning hajiti yoq , «diwan nefisi» ni yazdi , Xutun –qizlargha nesihet qilish mezmunidiki <<exlaqi jemile >> (güzel exlaq) namliq bir kitap yazdi . <<shoruhulqulub>> (qelibler sherhi) namliq bir risale yazdi , Shairliq we neghmichilik we xettatliq toghrisida bundaq menilik kitablar az ,<<ishret en’giz>> (shadliq qozghighuchi) namliq muqamnimu bu melike ijad qilghanidi , Küchlük reshik tüpeylidin sultan buni öz namida qiliwalghan hem shu buyiche neghmichilerge ögitilgen , Bu melike 34 yëshida tughutta wapat bolghan dëyilidu , Melike alemdin ötkendin këyin , Sultan özini öltürüwalghudek  halgha yëtip  , Sewdayiliq kësilige muptila boldi , Sultan axiri yighlap alemdin ötti dëyilidu .
amannisa heqqide yene molla salih kashgherining <<chinggizname>> dëgen esiride <<…xan axiri bir reif lulini aldiler ,Chüchük xanim serzenish (tapa-tene) qildi << : sen lulini alding dep ,Xan bu robaiyni tosattin ëyttiler :
<< mehbub eger köngül qebuli bolse ,
shirin hereket ,Xush usuli bolse .
jan otrasida aningki yoli bolse ,
ni eyib aning eslisi luli bolse ,
xanim hem güzeshit (kechürüsh) qildiler. >>
dep yëzilip amannisaxandin bisharet bërilgen .
bu yerdiki << luli >> sözi eyni waqittiki tarim wadisidiki dolan diyarida yashap kelgen senetxumar mekit xelqige qaritilghan bolup , Ular fiudal muteessip ishanlar teripidin kemsitilip <<luli>> dep atalghanidi . bu amannisaxanning naxsha –ussulgha mahir , Addi  senetkar xelqning perzenti ikenlikini chüshendürüp bëridu .
yuqiriqi tarixi matëryallardin shuni biliwëlishqa boliduki  , Melike emannisaxan bir addi , Kembeghel utunchi ailiside dunyagha kelgen , Özining güzel latapiti we bilimi bilen sultanning yaqturishigha ëriship,  uning bilen toy qilghan .
melike amannisaxan ordigha kirgendin këyin sultan abdureshidxanning heqiqiy söygüsige ërishken , El arisigha bërip muqamni qëzish , Toplash , Retlesh ,Yürüshleshtürüshtin ibaret büyük ishta uning qollishigha hem himaye qilishigha ërishken bolsimu  , Ordidiki bir qisim muteessip wezir –wuzuralar we diniy hoquqni qolgha ëliwalghan xoja-ishanlar birliship uninggha ökte qopqan . ular<< ordini muqamchilar igilep ketti , Qollirigha saz tutushiwalghan zidi pes tijimeller xalighanche kirip ordini qelenderxanigha aylandurup qoydi , Xanliqning ghezinisidin nurghun aqchilar bihude xejlinip ketti , Xanish amannsa xënim ashu tijimel muqamchilargha mubarek jamalini uchuq-ashkara körsitip bille saz chëliship , Muqeddes diniy islamimizgha muxalip këlidighan gunahliq ishlarni qiliwatidu >> dëgendek bednamlarni chaplap muqamdin ibaret bu büyük meniwiy roh ghezinisini yoqitiwetmekchi bolushqan .
melike amannisa xënim ene shundaq chetke qëqish , Yushurun ahanet qilishlargha chidap ,  muqam retlesh , Shiir yëzish ishlirini bir künmu toxtitip qoymighan , Qidirxan yerkendidek meshhur muqam ustazliri uninggha herjehettin yardemde bolghan , Sultan abdureshidxanmu qetiy niyetke këlip uni qollighan . amannisaxan sultanning muhebbitidin we adaletlikidin süyünüp uninggha atap mundaq bir parche shiër yazghan , Bu shiër hem hazirghiche muqam tëkistliri bilen bille zamanimizgiche yëtip kelgen :
kishi keldi jahan’gha kördi tengsizlik balasini ,
xudawende qubul qilghin feqirler iltijasini .
adalet birle dunyagha höküm sürse ulugh xislet ,
shunga el bashpanah derler diyarim padishahini .
chimende gül ëchilghanda qilur bulbul nichük taqet ,
shu chagh bulbul turalamdu jaranglatmay nawasini .
heqiqet we adaletning ulugh serdarini yadlap ,
nefise chaldi shukrane qilip bu penjigahini .

biraq zaman chaqi tetür chögilep, Ayallararisidin chiqqan bu latapetlik ,Bilimlik ,Qeyser muqam xanishi texminen miladiye 1557-yili ordida tughut üstide wapat bolghan . u wapat bolushning aldida wesiyet qilip mundaq digen :«men bu alemdin këtimen ,Elning meripiti üchün bir ömür tirishtim ,Buningdin bashqa sermayem ,Yaxshi xislet ,Pezilitimmu yoq . öz hayatimda yëzip chiqqan meniwi ümüdüm –ghezinemni baqiy alemge ëlip këtey .qumush qelemlirimning qërindisi bilen su issitip mëni yuyunglar ,Melike raziyening yaqut yëziqi bilen yëzilghan meshep shiripni tëxi küchürüp bolalmighanidim ,Qizlarning biri axirni yëzip elge teqdim qilsun ,Patime binni ehmedning xush xetni bilen qebremge xatire yëzinglar……
( amannisaxanning tughulghan hem wapat bolghan waqti ëniq emes ,Shundaq bolsimu tewarixi musqiyunda ëytilghan ,Melikining 34 yëshida alemdin ötkenliki ,Sultan abdureshidxanning melikining ülümidin kiyin sewdayiliq kisilige giriptar bolup alemdin ötkenlqki toghrisidiki bayanlargha asasen melike amannisaxanni hijriye 930-yillarning bashliri yeni miladiye 1520-yillarning otturliri dunyagha këlip hijriye 930-yillarning otturliri yeni miladiye 1550-yillarning axirliri alemdin ötken dep qarash mümkin ).
shundaq qilip uyghur xelqining bibaha gühiri bolghan on ikki muqamni retlesh , Yürüshleshtürüsh  , El arisigha tarqitish ishlirigha nahayiti zor töhpilerni qoshqan ,Xelqning medeniyet ,  edebiyat –senet ishlirining rawajlinishi üchün yürek qënini serp qilghan bu yalqunluq yürek suqushtin bimehel toxtighan bolsimu ,  lëkin uning shu öchmes töhpilirining sheripitige xelqimiz uni taki hazirghiche qelbining chongqur qëtida saqlap , Namini yadlap, Uning xatirisi üchün abidilerni qaturup ,  rohini tawap qilip kelmekte hem kelgüsidimu uning mubarek muqam xanishliq nami ewladlar qelbide menggü ornighusi .

http://uyghurpedia.com/index.php?title=Melike_amannisaxanning_hayati_we_ijadiyetliri_toghrisida

Elshir Newa’i Dastanliridiki Tiragédiylik Roh we Istétik Yükseklik


Alshir Nawayi
Tiragédiye eng deslep grik yunanda peyda bolghanda, u peqet tiyatirning bir türi dep qaralghanidi. Yunan peylasopi aristotél qedimki grik yunanning yazghuchiliri sofokl we isxlning dangliq tragédiylirini tehlil qilish asasida tunji qétim tragédiysi istétik katégiriye da’irisde tehlil qilghan hem tiyatir dep qarighanidi. Shuningdin tartip istétika tarixida tragédiye omumen keng we tar da’iride chüshinip kélin’gen. Omumen insanning tasadipiy yaki muqerrerlikke ige amilliri keltürüp chiqarghan azab-oqubet, bexitsizlik, külpet we ölüm qismetlirini kishiler tragéidiylik aqiwet, dep qarighan. Tar da’irdin alghanda tragédiye istétik yükseklikning merkezleshken ipadisi dep qaralghan. Sen’ettiki tragédiye bolsa ré’alliqtiki tarixiy, ijtima’iy tragédiye amillirini asas qilsimu, lékin bularning hemmisi tragédiylik bolmastin, belki edebiyat-sen’et ijadiytidiki tragédilik ré’al hadisilerning edib-sen’etkarning azabi, tragédiysi ichide yüksek istétik tipikleshtürüsh, oylinish we meniwi halqishning ipadiisi. Sen’etkarning azab, bexitsizlik ichidin bext, shadliq we erkinlikning menzilini kishige körsitip bérishidur. Insanning kishlik hayat we teqdir heqqidiki oylinish musapisi bilen emeliyet musapisining özi bir tragédiyilik jeryan. Shunglashqa, tragédiyilik ang meyli shexiste bolsun yaki bir millette omumyüzlük jehette bolsun, u aldi bilen shexisning sobiyéktip rohida küchiyip baridu. Hayat we ölüm, baqiliq we ötkünchilik, ghaye we ré’alliq, hésisyat we eqil arisida insan qelbi her chagh azabliq ziddiyetke tolghan bolidu. Insan qelbidiki bu toqunush tarixtiki barliq tragédiyning, sen’ettiki tragédiylik asasini teshkil qilidu. Shunga, tragédiye tar menide tiyatirning bir türini yaki istétik katégoriyning sheklini hemde yükseklikning eng merkezlik ipadilinish halitini körsetse, edebiyat-sen’et ijadiytide hayat riyazitining, jarahetlik qelibning ghéribsinish, ghezeb-chuqani, shundaqla yazghuchi-sha’irning chongqur qelb qatlimidiki istétik éngi süpitide nahayti keng ipadilindu. Tragédiylik ang yaki roh qandaqtur gherb tragédiye chüshenchisidiki ölüm bilenla belgilinip qalmay, belki insanning azab, musheqqet we teqdirge qarshi turup hayatqa qizghin kirishish, töhpe qoshush, öz qedir-qimmitini yaritishqa chaqirishtin ibaret yüksek istétik angdin terkib tapqan bolidu.
Tragédiye chüshenchisi we uning istétik ölchemliridin qarighanda, u gherb edebiyatigha mensup istétik katégoriye. Shunga, uyghur edebiyat tarixida gherb edebiyatigha oxshash heqiqiy menidiki tragédiye nezeryisi yorutulghan eser bolmisimu, lékin, azab, muhebbet we ölüm bilen birliship ipadilen’gen küchlük tragédiylik ang- uyghur medeniyet pisxkisidiki qedimki izchil we gewdilik istétik ang bolup, u klassklirimizning ijadiyet pisxikisigha chongqur singgen. Öz xelqi, turmushi, kishlik hayat we insan teqdiri meslilirige qeder chétilghan azab we tragédiye hésisiyati « oghuzname», «shiraq», « tumaris» riwayetliri, menggü tash yadikarliqliri, quchu dewridiki « ikkin tigin hékayisi»,« chistani ilik beg » qisisisi, « diwani hékmet » qatarliq klassik eserlerde chongqur otturigha qoyulghan.
Uyghur klassik edebiyatidiki tragédiye dep qaraliwatqan eserler asasen lirik yaki ipik dastanlar bolup, uni gherb tragédiylirige oxshash heqiqiy menidiki tragédiye déyish qiyin, emma héchbolmighandimu tragédiylik xususiyetke hem anggha ige eserler ikenlikide shek yoq. Bizning tragédiylik eserler hem tragédiylik ang dégende közde tutqinimiz, beziler uyghur tragédiyliri, dep atawatqan sanaqliq eserlerla emes, belki bu , azab, muhebbet, bextsizlik, ölüm hem teqdirge qarshiliq rohi ipadilen’gen tragéidiylik rohqa ige edebiy eserlerning hemmisige qaritilidu. Ottura esirde uyghur klassik ijadiytidiki tragédiyilik ang shöbihsizki, klassiklar ijadiytide yüksek derijide ipadilen’gen. Newa’ining tragédiyilik éngini téximu merkezlik ekis ettürüp bergen eserler « xemise» dastanliri terkibidiki « perhad-shérin»,« leyli-mejnun» din ibaret ikki tragédiyilik dastanidur. Newa’i lirikilirini tehlil qilghanda, uning yashighan dewrini alahide tilgha élip ötüshke erziydu. Albuki, elshir newa’i hüseyin bayqara hakimyitining murekkep ziddiyetke tolghan muhitida yashidi. Gerche bu hirat medeniyti güllen’gen bir mezgil bolsimu, emma u hökümranlar bilen puqralar, ilim ehilliri bilen ölimalar we ilim igilirining munasiwiti murekkepleshken, fé’odalliq siyasiy, ijtima’iy munasiwet bilen türlük idé’ologiye gireleshken, mez’hepler bilen pikir éqimilirning körishi ichide yashap, jem’iyet we ademlerni chüshen’gen, shunga u bextsizlerning qayghusi, heqqaniy küchlerning tragédiysi hem uning hayati küchning néme ilkenlikini öz dewrige qarita biwaste sélishturma qilip qoydi. Newa’i zamanisi üchün eng ré’al mesle bolghan insanning bext sa’aditi, güzel turmushi hem erkin muhebbet turmushi, barawerlik hoquqi idi. Newa’i fé’odalliq chirik munasiwet, exlaq qa’idiler élip kelgen tragédiyilerni qiz-yigitlerning muhebbet, nikah we exlaq paji’esige merkezleshtürüp, bu hayat paji’esining tarixiy ijtima’iy yiltizini ichip berdi, bu paji’ege teng qayghurdi . Sha’irning « leyli-mejnun» dastanida sherq xeliqliri arisigha keng tarqalghan hem ottura asiya edebiyatining seyyare siyuzhitigha aylan’ghan leyli bilen mejnunning bille oqup, bir-birige köngül tashlighan qiz-yigitning fé’odalliq tebiqe tüzümi we qa’idilirning bésim hem tosqunluqi bilen wisalgha yételmey, bir-birining ishqi piraqida hesret ichide dunyadin ketkenlikini yazidu. « perhad-shérin» dastanida newa’i xoten shahzadisi perhad bilen ermen melikisi shérinning en’eniwi ishqi siyuzhitini asas qilip, xeliqning bext-sa’aditi, parawanliqi üchün tirishqan, wapadar, süygüsige sadiq qiz-yigitning chin muhebbet, heqqaniyet üchün küriship axir arman’gha yételmey alemdin ötkenliki teswirleydu. Bu dastanigha newa’i özining wetenperwerlik, xeliqchiliqtin ibaret yuqiri ijtima’iy exlaqi hem istétik qarishini mujessemligen. Her ikki dastanning siyuzhiti we ziddiyet toqununishi sha’ir tolimu egri-toqay we inchike layihlen’gen. Bedi’iy qehirmanning yarqin, aliyjanab, yüksek simasini küchlük ziddiyet toqunushi ichide keskin küreshte ilgiri sürüp, tragédiyilik axirlashturghan. Newa’i bu tragédiyilik aqiwetni alijanab, heqqaniy küchlerning yaxshiliq, güzellik wekillirning tragédiysi qilip orunlashturghanda, uni ajizliq emes, belki ilghar heqqaniy küchlerning waqitliq meghlubiyiti hemde öz dewrige bolghan qarshiliqning bir xil ipadisige aylandurup, istétik yükseklikini yaritidu.
Yaxshiliq, yamanliq, ilgharliq bilen qatlamliq küchliridin ibaret ikki xil siyasiy, ijtima’iy hem exlaqiy küchning keskin ziddiyet toqunushi we kürishi, tragédiiyilik, istétik yükseklikining asasi. Bu jehettin alghanda, newa’i tragédiyiliri istétik yükseklikini namayen qilalighan.
Qedimki girik yunan tragédiyiliridin bashlap, gheribning tragédiyiliri asasen dégüdek padishah, ilahlar, xan jemeti, ésilzadiler, yuqiri tebiqe kishlirining turmushini asas qilip, ularning bextsizlik, paj’esi we ölümini tragédiye dep qarap kelgen. Shuning bilen bille, tragédiye bash qehirmanlirining ölümi we paj’elik aqwetke duchar bolushini eng axir xiristi’an dini ilahyetchilikige we teqdirge yüklep qoyghan. Uning üstüge gheribning tragédiyliride tragédiyilik aqiwet köpinche shexisning sobiktipchanliqi, shexsiyetchilik bilen biwaste munasiwetlik bolup, könglide tehdit, endishe hem ishenchini yoqitish qatarliq pisxik keypiyatlar köprek gewdilendürülgen.
Emma, newa’ining yuqirqi tragédiyilik eserlirini öz ichige alghan uyghur edebiyatidiki « gül we bulbul», « mehzun-gülnisa», « rabiye-se’idin», « nozughum» gha oxshash tragédiyilik eserlerning siyuzhit weqeliki menb’iy xeliq arisida tarqalghan epsane-riwayet yaki xeliq hékayiliri bolsa, qehirimanliri dégüdek adettiki kishiler, uning ichide el-yurt, weten üchün jan pida qilghan milliy qehirimanlarmu, özining pak, semimiy muhebbitige sadiq ashiq-meshuqlarmu bar. Uyghur tragédiyilik eserlerdiki qehirimanlarning héssiyat pisxikisi, pozitsiysi jehettin insanperwer hésslargha bay merdane, jasaretlik, öz itiqadigha sadiq, ümidwar, kolléktipchanliqi küchlük, tragédiyilik qehirimanlarning ölüm yaki paj’elik teqdirini kütüwélish arqiliq rezillikke qarshi turush qandaqtur rohiy ghalibiyetchilik bilen paniy dunyada rahet körüsh idiysidin emes, belki özining ulughwar, isyatkar keskin pozitsiysi, köz qarishi hem xarektérining ipadisi qilin’ghan. Bolupmu, ashundaq kishiler kem bolghan we bu rohqa teshna bolghan zamanda sha’ir edibning mundaq ulughwar, yüksek, alijanab kishiler hem rohning tiklinishini arzu qilghanliqi bolsa, yene bir tereptin sha’ir edibning mundaq tragédiyilik yüksek alijanab qehirimanlarning ölgisi, öz dewridiki kishilerge tewsiye qilish, bu ülgiler arqiliq dewridiki bir qisim kishilerge tesir körsitish üchün idi. Shunga, meyli « perhad-shérin» ning tragédiysi yaki « leyli-mejnun» ning tragédiysi bolsun, tégi-tektidin éyitqanda, uningdiki tragédiyilik ang öz dewrining ré’al mesliliri bilen baghlinidu. Sha’ir öz dewrining ré’al mesliliri bilen baghlinidu. Sha’ir özining küchlük tragédiyilik éngini bu dastanlargha singdürgende, qehirmanlirining tragédiyliridin hesret chékidu. Ularning paj’esige yash tökidu. Sha’ir « leyli-mejnun» dastanining axirida héssiyatini mundaq iz’har qilidu:
Yüz shükri ki bu fasaneni derd,
Herlefzide yüz nishani derd.
Jan perdelirin ewraq,
Jandin bérip ol waraqni oshshaq.
Yazghanda midadi köz qarasi,
Yazghan qara qayghu majirasi…
Söngin néche kim uzattim axir,
Yighlay-yighlay tügettim axir.
Newa’i « leyli –mejnun» we « perhad-shérin» dastanida muhebbetni bash téma qilip, fé’odalliq dewrdiki qiz-yigitlerning söygü-muhebbet paj’elirini teswirlep, ishiq yolidiki sadaqmen, wapadarliqning küch-qudritini hem u ashiq-meshuqlarning muhebbet témisigha ularning muhebbet, nikah erkinliki, barawerlik üchün küresh qilip, fé’odalliq qa’idilerge qarshi küreshtin ibaret qehirmaniliq, alijanabliq rohini singdürgen. Newa’i « perhad-shérin» dastanida nizami, genjubiwi we xisraw dihlewilerning bu témidiki ijadiyet en’enisidin bashqiche yol tutup, öz esiride shérin yaki xisrawni bash qehiriman qilmay, belki riwayetlerdiki xoten shahzadisi perhadni bash qehirman qilip, uni ilim-pen, eqil-paraset, hüner-maharette kamaletke yetken qilip teswirleydu. Perhad el-yurtining tinch parawanliqi, bexti üchün pak semimiy étqadi bilen özini béghishlaydu. Uning wujudigha yüksek wetenperwerlik, insanperwerlik xisletliri mujessemlen’gen. Newa’i shérin obrazini uning perhadqa bolghan söygü-muhebbettiki pak eqidisi we wapadarliq janlandurup, uning bu yoldiki ölümini tallash arqiliq tragédiyilik yükseklikini yaratqan.
Bu arqiliq newa’i herqandaq kishige bolghan söygü ishqini emes, belki heqiqiy chin insan’gha bolghan ishqini medhiyileydu. Shunglashqa, shérin jan üzüsh aldida perhadqa yazghan xétide özining muhebbettiki yüksek exlaqi, qimmet qarishini, pak héssiyatini insan qelbini titiritidighan halda ipadilep,hayatini axirlashturidu. Yalghuz uyghur tragédiyilik eserliridila emes, belki tragédiyilik ang ipadilen’gen eserlerning omumyüzlük bir muhim alahidiliki- bu xil eserlerde tashqi we ichki ziddiyet toqunushi keskin, pérsunazhlar obrazining xarektérida bir xil chongqur ichki qarshiliq, isyankarliq, sadiqliq, alijanab, merdaniliq rohi gewdilinip turidu.
Hüseyin bayqara dewrining siyasiy, ijtima’iy we medeniy shara’itida sha’ir elshir pütkül hayatida hem barliq ijadiytide pighanliq, hesretlik, munglan’ghan meslilerning nigizi insan we uning teqdiri meslisini otturigha qoydi. Meyli newa’ining tebi’et we bilish nezeriysi qarashliri bolsun yaki ijtima’iy exlaq qarashliri bolsun, insanning tebi’et, jem’iyettiki orni, teqdiri, qimmet meslisini yadro qilip, insan, ka’inat, tengri we teqdirning birdekliki asasida insanning musteqil ijadchanliqi, erkinlik hoquqi, güzellikini medhiyilidi. Newa’i özining bir yürüsh gumanistik idiye sistémisini öz hayatida sherq-gherb tepekkur idiye tarixini ijadiy özleshtürüp, dewr ré’alliqini hemde özining heqiqiy hayat paj’eliri, kechmishliridiki tejiribe xulasiliri bilen zich birleshtürüp yaratqanidi. Newa’i özining pelsepiwi istétik idiysini, dölet, xelq heqqidiki iqtima’iy barawerlik, adalet, heqqaniyet, ilim-pen qarishini « heyretul obraz», « seddi iskender» qatarliqlar dastanlirida yorutqan bolsa, hayat, muhebbet, güzellik, exlaq we bext-sa’adet heqqidiki istétik qarashlirini, insanning muhebbet we ijtima’iy tragédiyiliri bilen uninggha bolghan ghezep hssiiyatini « perhad-shérin»,« leyli-mejnun»,« mehbubul qulup» qatarliq eserliride otturigha qoydi. Sha’ir ömrining axirida bolsa « lisanutteyri» (qush tili ) namliq dastanida eyni chaghda ottura asiyada xelq rohiytige singgen sofizmning terkibdunyachiliq, zahidliq qarashlirigha qarshi turup, insanning tebi’et we tengri aldidiki orni we qimmitining tengdashsiz büyüklikini, insanning özini mahiyetlik tonushini tewsiye qildi.
Newa’i ijadiytide bir tereptin kéyinki ottura esirde uyghur fé’odalizm jem’iytining diniy, sinpiy küchlirning balayi’apiti, kishilerning tragédiysini tipikleshtürüp, xelqning bext-sa’adetlik, erkin hayatqa intilishi ekis ettürdi. Bolupmu newa’i xuddi özidin ilgirki uyghur klassikliridek, ademlerni yaxshi-yaman dégen ölchem boyche qarap, bilim, exlaq arqiliq insanning qedir-qimmet tépip, bext-sa’adetke yétishini ümid qildi. Kishilerni exlaqiy we bilim-meripet arqiliq adaletke, insabqa, xelqchiliqqa chaqirdi. U , iskender shah, behram shah, perhad qatarliq obrazlarning simasi arqiliq öz dewridiki hökümranlargha tesir qilip, ularni özgertishni oylighanidi. Emma, bu newa’i yashighan dewrning siyasiy muhiti, sinpiy ziddiytidin alghanda ishqa ashmayitti. Chünki, ottura esir jemi’ytining siyasiy tarixy müshküllüki bu xil tragédiyining muqerrer dawamlishidighanliqini we küchiyip baridighanliqidin bisharet béretti. Emeliyettimu, yéqinqi zaman uyghur jemi’ytide bu xil tragéydiye rohi yenimu küchiyip bardi.
Paydilan’ghan matériyallar:
(1) «gherp istétika tarixi» xelq edebiyati neshriyati, 1987-yil.
(2) ju guangchen: «tragédiye pisxologiysi», shangxey xelq neshriyati neshiri.
(3) sh.ömer: «uyghurlarda klassik edebiyat», 416,-417-betler.
(4) elshir newa’i: «leyli-mejnun», shinjang yashlar neshriyati, 1999-yil neshri.
«qeshqer» zhurnili 2006-yilliq 1-sandin élindi
Aptor: Iqbal Tursun- Uyghuristan pédagogika uniwérsitéti edebiyat inistitutining proféssori, filologiye penliri dokturi.

http://uyghurpedia.com/index.php?title=

Uyghur Edebiyati Tarixi’ning Tetqiqat Témiliri


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Abdushükür Memtimin

Söz Béshi

Uyghur xelqi köp milletlik wetinimizning qedimqi medeniyetlik milletlirining biri. Uyghur edebiyati uyghur medeniyitining muhim bir tarmiqi, uyghur xelqining köp esirlik medeniyet tarixini, jümlidin ghayet mol edebiyat tarixini négilizimliq asasta inkar qilish, burmilash we kemsitish lin biyaw, jiyang ching gorohi féodal fashisitliq medeniyet hakim mutleqliq jinayitining bir terkiwiy qismi. Uyghur edebiyati tarixini markisizimliq tarixiy matériyalizimliq köz qarash we usulda her tereplime tetqiq qilish we qézish, junggo her millet xelqliri edebiyat – senet, pelsepe we idiologiye tarixini tetqiq qilish we qézishtiki muhim bir ilmiy sahe.

Bu sahediki xizmet ayrimiliqtin omumiyliqqa qarap, bashqiche éytqanda ayrim xas témilardin bir pütün uyghur edebiyati tarixi heqqidiki bir yaki bir qanche kitabqa qarap élip bérilghini bir qeder eqilge muwapiq, u köpchilikning aktipchanliqini qozghashqa, ilmiy paaliyetni bir qeder keng qanat yaydurushqa, her qaysi témilar boyiche chongqulap ichkirileshke paydiliq. Elwette, bu birdin – bir usulmu emes.

“Uyghur Edebiyati Tarixi” tetqiqat témiliri” bir quruq jaza, shundaqtimu ata – bowilirimizning minglighan yillar ichidiki japaliq bediiy tepekküri we edebiy ijadiyiti asasidiki bir quruq jaza, bundaq quruq jazining yoqluqi bilen barliqi bir – birige sélishturulsila uning ehmiyiti, paydisi we zörüriyiti nahayiti éniq ayan bolidu, bu izlinish tereplirini belgileshke we ishlinish qizghinliqini ashurushqa, matériyallarni köprek tépish we tetqiqatni bir qeder keng yolgha qoyushqa melum payda yetküzidu, héch bolmighanda bu témilar uyghur edebiyatning tarixiy tématik sistémisi heqqidiki köz qarashni tiklesh we roshenleshtürüshke paydiliq.
Jamaetchilikke semimiy éhtiram bilen:

Abdushükür Memtimin

(muqeddime, 1- qisim, 2- qisimning aldidin bashlap yoqalghan.

Orxun – Ron Yéziqi

Budda uyghur edebiyati, koshan (qoshxan) xaqani kadpis ötküzgen budda yéghinigha béghishlan’ghan widayasila (Vidayasila) ning budda zepernamisi “Buddha Storadhasatka” qesidisi, budda dirammisi “Matterya Samitka”.
Budda hékayilirining ortaqliqi we milliy alahidiligi mesilisi, din we senet ortaqliqi we alahidiligi. Budda qaidilirining mehelliwélishishi we milliylashturulushi. Xotende “mebut yötkesh”; budda chöchekliri.
Xotenlik melike sémira (Semira) ning yurt séghinish lirikisi.
Zara ostira dini we uyghur edebiyati; pal kitabi; tébbiy kitabtiki we yuruqluq, qarangghuluq hem yek (jin) lar heqqidiki bediiy tesewwurlar.
Hindistan dastani “Maxapxarata” we “Ramayana” din “Maxapxarata” ning, isos chöcheklirining turpanda tépilghan terjime nusxisi; jinlar we balayi – apetke qarshi ezimet ilikbég heqqidiki “Chistani Ilikbég” dastani.
Uyghurlarda budda tashchiliq – neqqashchiliq seniti; uyghurlarda eng iptidaiy ghar hayati söretliri; budda dinining heykeltarashliq we shéiriyet bilen bézeklendürülüshi we obrazlashturulushi; dandan öylük; kucha ming öy, qumtur, bézeklik we dungxuang oyma neqqashliri we tam söretliri; yépek yoli we karwan yoli teswiri söriti; kuchar orkistiri we naxsha – usul teswiri; Waysa Irasen’ga we uning dadisi Wisa Bochinaning pétinqi – köpünki (sétroluq) usulidiki söretchilik muweppeqiyetliri; Qanqil Satu, Qanqil Shé’iri, Selizjunda we Bomi qatarliqlarning ressamliq utuqliri.
“Xu” nezmiliri we uyghur küyshunasliqi; chalghu we ahang. naxsha we muzika. Muzika we qoshaq. Xotende tépilghan Istrit Sujup we uning “12 Témpéramintologiyilik Küyshunasliq Qanuni” we uning ehmiyiti. Manda Aqari, budda rahipliri uyghur – shinjang medeniyiti we seniti heqqide.
Orxun – ronche uyghur yéziqi nemuniliri. Xotende we orxunda tépilghan yaghluqar qalu we yaghliqarlarning ronche yéziqliri. Tashpütük we tezkiriler “Köl Tékin” abidisi, “Bilge Qaghan” abidisi, “Tunyuquq Abidisi”. ularning tarixiy, ijtimaiy, bediiy amilliri we qimmiti.
Kona uyghur mani yéziqi nemuniliri. “Chuq Art Tékin Tezkirisi” diki riwayetler. “Shuenzangning Tezkirisi” we uning “Ulugh Tang Dewride Gherbke Sayahetname” kitabidiki medeniy hayatqa ait xatiriler. “Töbe Duasi”, “Altun Yaruq”, “Etildan we Nadanname” (Ikki Tékin Hékayisi) we bashqilar.

Uchinchi Qisim

Islamiyettin ilgiriki ottura esir uyghur edebiyati
Omumiy obzor. Islamiyetning peyda bolushidin uyghurlar islamiyetni qobul qilghiche bolghan dewrdiki uyghur medeniyiti we edebiyati “Xotende Gül Seylisi” shéiri. “Uyghur Neghmisi” shéiri we qoghursu altunning “Tura Naxshisi” shéiri.
Yaghliqar bashchiliqidiki orxun uyghurlirining köchüshi. Sériq uyghur medeniyiti we éghiz edebiyati mesililiri. Dirammichiliq we arslanxanning muzikiliq ziyapiti xatirisi 9 chawuplar.

Tötinchi Qisim

Islamiyettin mongghul istilasighiche uyghur edebiyati (10-, 12- esirler)
Omumi obzor. Ottura asiyada islam we baghdad xelipiliklirining sir deryaning jenubiy qismigha tesirini kirgüzüshi. Qarluq we oghuzlarning sir daerya boyidiki baghdad islam xelipilikige qarshi liniyisi. Yaghma – qarluq qatarliq uyghur qebilirining qaraxanilar hakimiyiti, onga yaghliqar qatarliq orxun qebilirining qoshulushi. Exmet Samanining saman sulalisini qurushi. Idiqut, qaraxan we genju sériq uyghur hakimiyetliri, gheznewiler. Manu Chighraning türkiy shéirliri. “Shahname” ning meydan’gha kélishi. Samanilar we qaraxanilar otturisidiki ziddiyet we sir derya boyidiki samanilar sépili. Sir derya shimalining islamlishishi. “Gor Oghli” dastani. Qaraxanilar uyghurlirining islam dinini qobul qilishi. Uyghurche quran nusxisi.
Ottura esir aditnotili ebunesir farabi (950-870). Islamiyettin kéyinki uyghur – qarluq medeniyitining tunji namayendisi. Islamiyettin kéyinki ottura asiya rohi atmusfirasidiki bir qanche alametler. Farabining medeniyet, til we senet heqqidiki köz qarashliri. Farabi obrazliq tepekkür we mentiqiliq tepekkur heqqide. Farabining edebiyatning tonush roli we zoqlinish roli, terbiyiwi roli heqqidiki istitik köz qarashliri. Farabi chinliq we güzellik toghrisida, farabining istitik bilish nezeriyisi. Farabi rétim – témpa, garmuniye, qapiye wezin hem shéiriy uslublar toghrisida, farabining hazirghiche melum bolghan pelsepiwi shéirliri, farabining muzikishunasliq sahesidiki ghayet zor töhpiliri. Farabi istitik köz qarashlirining ilghar tarixiy ehmiyiti we tesiri.
Oüsüp Xas Hajip we uning “Qutadghubilik” dastani. Dastanning meydan’gha kélishi we shairning hayati. Sha’irning dastanda ilgiri sürgen asasiy idiyiliri. Dastanning tüzülmisi we asasiy mezmun. Sha’irning ijtimaiy – pelsepiwi we istitik köz qarashliri. Farabi telimatlirining shairgha tesiri. Yüsüp Xas Hajip teshebbusidiki ilmiy paaliyetler we “Sajiye” jamasining (aliy mektiwining) qurulushi we oqutush mezmunliri.
Mehmut Qeshqiri we “Diwan Lughetit Türk”. Lughetning edebiy we istitik qimmiti. Diwanda yazma we éghiz edebiyati, temsil, wezin mesililiri. Diwanning uyghur edebiyat tarixini yurutushtiki ehmiyiti.
Exmet Yükneki we “Hibbetul Heqayiq” dastani. Dastanning meydan’gha kélish muhiti, qaraxanilar hakimiyitining chüshkünlishish alametlirining dastandiki ipadisi. Dastanning mezmuni we exlaqiy, pelsepiwi we bediiy qimmiti.
Muhemmet Xarezimi we “Muhebbetname”. Rabghuzi we “Qissetul Enbiya”. Bu ikki eserning til teleppuz mesililiri we bediiy mezmuni.
Qoshumche: Exmet Yesewiy “Diwan Hékmet” shéiriyitining til mesilisi we pelsepiwi mezmunliri. Exmet Yesewidiki xelqperwerlikning rohaniyetchilik bilen birliship kétish xahishi mesilisi. Exmet Yesewi shéiriyet yolining kéyinki tarixiy tesiri we edebiyatta idiologiyilik küreshning ewj élishi. Eyni zaman meniwi hayatigha béghishlan’ghan nesri edebiyat nemuniliri.
“Terkirei Sultan Sutuq Bughraxan Ghazi”, “Tezkiri Ebu Nesir Samani”, Ubul Fotuq Hüseyin El Amayning yoqalghan esiri:”Qeshqer Tarixi”. Xotenlik Molla Niyazning kéyinki zamanda yazghan “Tezkiri Yette Imam” dastanidiki shu dewrge ait bediiy teswir.
Qoshumche: Obulqasim Firdewsning “Shahname”. Sheyx Sa’idining “Gülistan” dastanida uyghurlar heqqide. Omer Hayyam rubailirining idiyiwi we bediiy tesiri. Ereb sayahetchiliri qaraxanilar dewri medeniyiti toghrisida. Qaraxanilar dewiridiki kuchar, qara sheher, turpan, beshbaliq, almiliq, iwirghul (qumul) we qalqalu, machin (xoten) medeniyiti.
Nayman – küchlük we kiran – gorxan dewridiki uyghur seniti. Riwayetler. Xiristiyan medeniyiti tesiri. Yette su, sir derya we ferghanidiki uyghur medeniyiti.

Beshinchi Qisim

Mongghul – (qublay) dewridiki uyghur edebiyati
Omumiy obzor. Mongghullar we uyghur til – edebiyati we senet – medeniyiti.
Qoshumche: Zemeqseri (1143- yili wapat qilghan) ning “Muqeddimetul Edep” lughiti. Muhemmed Imin Qeysi Qanqilining “Türki Lughet” kitawi we edebiy til mesililiri.

Altinchi Qisim

Mongghul – chaghatay dewridiki uyghur edebiyati
Omumiy obzor. Uyghur eneniwi shéiriyitining yéngi dewri. Seddi Qeshqiri we uyghur – türkiy shéiriyet mesilisi.
Chaghatay dewri. Uyghur shéiriyitining asaschisi Mewlane Ebeydulla Lutfi. (1465-1360)
“Diwan Lutfi”, “Gül we Newruz” dastani. Lutfining terjimichilighi “Zepername”, “Hashiyeti Metaliol Enwar” (nur menbelirining sherhi). Lutfining pelsepiwi we istitik qarashliri. Lutfi shéiriyitining bediiy xususiyetliri.
Yüsüp Sekkaki we uning shéiriyiti. (14- esirning axiri)
Atayi shéiriyiti. (15- esirning aldinqi yérimi)
Ottura esir türk – uyghur shéiriyitining yüksek ülgisi – Elishir Nawaiy. Nawaiy dewri we hayat – paaliyiti. Nawaiy eserlirining tili we uning milliy fonitikiliq xususiyetliri. Nawaiy mesilisi. Nawaiyning ilmiy we didaktik eserliri. Nawaiyning pelsepiwi, ijtimaiy, pidagogikiliq we istitik köz qarashliri. Nawaiy shéiri tilining bediiy xususiyetliri. Nawaiy lughiti. Nawaiyning “Xemse” dastanlirining sidiq xwashah Yerkendi teripidin nesirleshtürülüshi – “Nesiri Xemse Nawaiy”. Nawaiyshunasliq mesililiri.
Xelq éghiz edebiyat mesililiri. “Chin Tömür Batur”, “Oktölmishning Sergüzeshtiliti”. “Nesiriddin Ependi Letipiliri”. “Yüsüp Exmet we Bozoghlan”.
Qoshumche. Seljuqlar shéiriyiti. Xisraw Déhliwi we uning “Char Derwish” esiri. “Char Derwish” ning yetkentlik mulla sidiq teripidin qilin’ghan uyghurche terjimisi. Nizami Genjiwi shéiriyitining tesiri. Jami eserlirining tesiri. Babur we “Baburname”. Babur shéiriyitining tili we seniti.

Yettinchi Qisim

17- esir (seidiye) uyghur edebiyati
Omumiy obzor. Mongghul dewrining axirlishishi.
Se’idi, Reshidi, Mewlana Xulqi, Ayazi ghezelliri. Sha’ire Nefisi, Nefisi (Amannisaxan) heqqidiki xatiriler. “Diwan Nefisi”, “Sorulqulub” (Qelibler Söhbiti), “Exlaqi Jemile”.
Qidiri we “Diwan Qidiri”. 12 muqamning retlinishi.
Se’idiye dewridiki turpan – qumul uyghur edebiyati.
Molla Yüsüp Ibin Qadir Hajining “Ghérip – Senem” dastani. Dastanning mezmuni we keng tarqilishi. Dastannning kéyinki zamanda opéralashturulushi.
Nesiri edebiyat. Mirza Heyder Korganning “Tarixiy Reshidi” kitabi. Mexmut Jurasning “Tarixiy Reshidi” kitabi. Muhemmed Eli Muhemmet Yerkendining “Hepte Muhemmedan” namliq kitabi. (Ababekri Mirza, Sultan Se’idxan, Abdureshitxan, Xoja Muhemmet Shirip, Ablimit Sultan qatarliqlar heqqidiki 366 betlik lirik esiri). “Tezkiri Uweyis”.

Sekkizinchi Qisim

18- esir (xojilar dewri) uyghur edebiyati
Omumiy obzor. Ijtimaiy muhit we dini hem dunyawi (gumatizimliq) edebiyat arisidiki küresh. Xelq edebiyati we orda edebiyati. Sopizim we dehirlik éqimi. Exmet Yesewi telimlirining tesiri. Yesewiychilik we nexshiwendichilik éqimi. Sopi Allayar we Xoja Nezer Huwayda heqqide. Aq tagh – qaratagh kürishi. Edebiy til mesilisi.
Muhemmet Imin Xojam Quli Xirqiti (1724- yili wapat bolghan) we uning “Muhebbetname – Méhnetkam” (1670- yil) dastani.
Réhim Baba Meshrep we uning hayati hem eserliri. Meshrepning yashighan we terbiye körgen jayliri. “Mubdei Nur” we “Diwan Meshrep”. Meshrep ghezelliride ipadilen’gen idiologiyilik mesililer. Meshrep shéiriyitinng uslubi, tili we ahangdarliqi.
Muhemmed Sidiq Zelili (Fiqiri). “Gülliyat Diwan Zelili” (hijiriyiining 1147-, 1155- yilliri), miladining 1734-, 1942- yilliri yézilghan “Sepername” (1718- yili) dastani. “Imam Sadiq Jepperi” dastani. Zelili shéiriyitining tématikisi we bediiy mahariti.
“Diwan Nöbiti”. Nöbitining Abdiraxman Xelpet teripidin 1797- yili köchürülgen liriklirining bediiy xususiyiti. Nöbitining wetenperwerlik we güzellikini medhiylesh témisidiki ghezelliri.
“Diwan Mejlisi” (1979-)
Omer baqi (18- esir) we uning “Perhat – Shérin”, “Leyli – Mejnun” dastani.
Muhemmet Sidiq Bershidi (18- esir) we “Sidiqname”.
Namelum aptorlar we eserler.
– Gumnam we uning shéirliri.
– Seyyadi we “Tahir – Zöhre” dastani.
– Sabir Seyqeli we “Qisse Seyqeli”, “Behrem we Gülendem”.
– Endelib we “Leyli – Mejnun” dastani.
– Samai we “Diwan Sama’i”
– Riza’i we uning “Xurshid we Melike Dillam” dastani.

Nesiri we terjime edebiyatlar

Meshhur edebiy terjimishunas Xamush Molla Yerkendi we uning “Shahname Türkiy”, “Kelile Dimane Türkiy” terjime we nesirleshtürgen esiri. Xamush Mollining nesirleshtürüsh we terjime qilish mahariti.
– Muhemmed Sadiq Qeshqiri we “Tezkiri Xojikan (Ezizan)”, “Zubeyde Tul Masa’il”, “Es’habul Kep” qatarliq nesri eserliri.

Toqquzinchi Qisim

19- esir uyghur edebiyati (1)

Molla Shakir we uning “Zepername” dastani. (1890-1802- yillar) üchturpanda yashighan.
19- esir meshhur uyghur shair Abduréhim Nizari. Omür bayani we ijadiy paaliyiti. “Xemse Nizari”, “Darilhad”, nizari eserlirining idiologiyilik we hékayetlik mezmuni. Nizarining tili we nizari shéiriyitining bediiy xususiyetliri.
“Diwan Zohuri” we telqin.
Ziyai “Mehzunul Wa’izi” (Qayghuluq Nutuqlar) esiri. Noruz Axun Katip Zohiridin Hékim Beg dewride yazghan 2400 misraliq shéiriy eser.
Turdush Axun Ghéribi we “Kitab Ghéribi”. (1841- yili) yazghan. “Kesipler Musabiqisi”.
Imin Xojayar ibn Muhemmed Shehyari “Ishtiyaqname” esiri. (bu shairmu ghérip texellusini ishletken).
Molla Elem Shehyari we lirik dastan “Gül we Bulbul”.
Emir Hüsüyün Suburi (qeshqerlik). Suburi Nawaiy eserlirining warisi we nawaiyshunas süpitide, Nawaiyning “Mentiqi Tehir” (Qushlar Tili) esirini sherhilep yazghan. “Maqalet Sherhi Menteqi Tehir”, “Dastan Iskender Termuwaiz”.
Bir qatar shairlar we ularning eserliri.
– Molla Réhim (18- esir) “Muhebbetname” esiri. 1807- yili Mulla Yunus Yerkendi Köchürgen.
– Molla Sidiq Yerkendi “Nesri Muhemmed Hüsüyün Beg” (18-, 19- esir)
– Ershi we “Diwan Ershi” (18-, 19- esir)
– Abdukérim Ziyai shéir – dastanliri.
– “Diwan Sadai” (18-, 19- esir)
– “Diwan Qelender”
– Mutriban Qeshqiri ijadiyiti
– “Diwan Naqs”. muhebbet we meripet témisi.
– Sabir Axun qolyazmisi, “Gülzarbinish”.
Nesri we terjime edebiyatlar
– Mulla Muhemmed Tömür Qariqash “Terkirshul Rishat” (1818- yil)
– Nimitulla bin Ismitulla (Möjiri) “Tarix Musqiyun”.
– Qasimi “Tezkiri Arslan”
– Qazi Quzzat Exmet Tömür Aqsuyi (Molla Mewlane Nuchixri Hikim) terjime qilghan “Iskendername”.
– Molla Niyaz “Tezkiri Imam Zebihulla” dastani.
– Molla Abdul Ghappar: “Zepername Shah Bahadirxan”
– Yerkentlik Mulla Sidiq we uning xisraw déhliwi dastani “Char Derwish” ni tejime qilish.

Oninchi Qisim

19- esir uyghur edebiyati (2)

19- esir xelq éghiz edebiyati we edebiyat oqutush mesililiri.
Nuzugum – xelq shairesi. Nuzuk qoshaqliri.
– “Gülemxan”, ili uyghurliri qoshaqliri. Yette su uyghur qoshaqliri.
– Xelq shairi Sadir Pelwan we uning qoshaqliri.
– Siyit Nochi qoshaq – dastani
– Bashqa tarixiy qoshaqlar.
– Edebiyat oqutushi. Dastankeshlik, meddahliq, hékayetchilik, seyli qoshaqliri.
Molla Bilal Binni Mulla Yüsüp (1899-1823). “Ghezeliyat”, “Kitab Ghazat Dermülki Chin”, “Nuzugum”, “Changmuza Yüsüpxan”. Mulla Bilalning ijtimaiy köz qarashliridiki ziddiyetler. Molla Bilal shéiriyitining bediiy xususiyetliri.
Siyit Muhemmed Héyit Muhemmed Qashi (1909-1858). “Sherhi Shikeste”.
Purqet toghrisida (1909-1858- yillar). uning 57 yilliq hayatining 32 yili Ottura asiyada, 5 yili chette, yétilgen 14 yili (1909-1896) xoten – Yerkentte ötken. Purqetning bu dewrdiki shéirliri.
Ayal shairlar. Mutribe, Muzeyyene, Sikine, Ajizi.
Bir qatar shairlar we ularning eserliri.
– Muhemmet Omeri “Diwan Omeri” (1850)
– Abduxalq Shehyari we uning shéiriy diwani.
– Exmetsha Qariqash we uning satirik shéiriyiti: “At”. “Miwiler Munazirisi”.
– Mexmut Hikim Beg (Mexmudi), Hoshur Qazi, Siyit Artushi, Niyaz Shéirliri.
– Fazili.
Dini – mistik edebiyat ülgiliri.
– “Diwan Sama’i”
– “Diwan Sayrami”
– “Diwan Binshan” (1842- yilqi peyghember tejimihali dastani)
– “Hejname”. Chiriyide Toxtisun Xoteni yazghan sayahet dastani.
Nesri edebiyat
– Molla Musa Sayrami. “Tarixiy Eminiye”, “Tarixiy Hemidiye”.
– “Ming Bir Kéche” ning Sirajidin Mexmud terjime nusxisi.
Qutluq Shewqi we uning oghli Imir Hesen Qazi. Ularning shéiri utuqliri. Imir Hesen Qazining “Shawaz Qari we Qizilchi Xénim” hékayisi.
Tejelli we “Berqi Tejelli” toplimi. Tejallining ghezelliri we “Qara Qesidisi”.
Abduqadir Damulla we uning eserliri. Kona démukratik metbuatchiliq we “Ang Mejmuesi”, heptilik “Nesihet Amma” gézitchisi. Abduqadir Damullamgha zamandash edipler.
Kona démukratik edebiyat namayendiliri. Abduxalq Uyghur, Exmet Ziya’i we 20-, 30- yillar arisidiki edebiyat..el ichi altun boshok.

Uigurisches Wörterbuch İsim Cildi Yayımlandı


01 UW-1

İlk fasikülü 1977’de yayımlanan ve Eski Uygurcanın neredeyse Thesaurus’u niteliğinde olan Uigurisches Wörterbuch 1998’de yayımlanan 6. ve son fasikülüyle yeni bir proje çerçevesinde, farklı bir sistemle yayımlanmak üzere yayımını durdurdu. İlk altı fasikülde 446 sayfa içerisinde aile başlayan Eski Uygurca kelimelerin tamamı ile ä – ärŋäk arasındaki kelimeler yer verilmişti: Klaus Röhrborn1977-1998: Uigurisches Wörterbuch. Sprachmaterial der vorislamischen türkischen Texte aus Zentralasien, 1-6, Wiesbaden. (1. resim)

Uygurca Sözlük, 2010 yılında, yeni bir sistemle, yeni yayınları, çalışmaları da ele alarak, sadece a ve ä ile başlayan fiilleri kapsayacak şekilde yayımlandı. 214 sayfalık sözlükte (+ CIV giriş ve kaynakça) yaklaşık olarak 180 kelime ele alınmıştır: Röhrborn, Klaus 2010a: Uigurisches Wörterbuch.     Neubearbeitung. I. Verben. Bd. 1: ab- – äzüglä-. Stuttgart (2. resim)

2010 yılında çıkan fiiller cildinde yer alan maddelere çevrimiçi olarak ulaşılabilir:

03 UW isim-1http://www.uwb.uni-trier.de/

Klaus Röhrborn, Uigurisches Wörterbuch. Sprachmaterial der vorislamischen türkischen Texte aus Zentralasien. II: Nomina – Pronomina – Partikeln. Teil 1: a – asvık. Neubearbeitung. Stuttgart, 2015.   XXVI, 307 S.  Kartoniert ISBN 978-3-515-11006-8. (2. resim)

Bu ayın ortasında (Eski) Uygurca Sözlük’ün “isimler” cildinin ilk bölümü de yayımlandı. Daha evvel “fiiller” cildinin ilk bölümü yayımlanmıştı (2010). Tabii bu yayınlar 1997’de başlayıp 1998’de sonlanan altı fasiküllük Uygurca Sözlük’ün fiil ve isim olarak ikiye ayrılmış, yenilenmiş şeklidir. Bu son iki yayın, maddebaşlarının Almanca karşılıklarının yanı sıra Türkçe karşılıklarını da içerir. Bu ay ortasında, yeni çıkmış olan isim cildinde a’dan asure’ye kadar 555 maddebaşı ele alınır. Bundan başka yanlış okunmuş ya da başka maddelerle birleştirilen şekiller de vardır.

Yeni çıkan isim cildi için şu adreslere bakılabilir:

http://www.steiner-verlag.de/programm/fachbuch/orientalistik/einzeltitel-orientalistik/view/titel/60413.html

http://www.steiner-verlag.de/uploads/tx_crondavtitel/datei-datei/9783515110068_i.pdf

http://www.steiner-verlag.de/uploads/tx_crondavtitel/datei-datei/9783515110068_p.pdf

İSTİKLAL MARŞI


Awtori Mehmet Akif Ersoy

Korkma! Sönmez bu şafaklarda yüzen al sancak,
Sönmeden yurdumun üstünde tüten en son ocak.
O benim milletimin yıldızıdır, parlayacak;
O benimdir, o benim milletimindir ancak.

Çatma, kurban olayım, çehreni ey nazlı hilal!
Kahraman ırkıma bir gül; ne bu şiddet, bu celal?
Sana olmaz dökülen kanlarımız sonra helal…
Hakkıdır, Hakk’a tapan milletimin istiklal.

Ben ezelden beridir hür yaşadım, hür yaşarım,
Hangi çılgın bana zincir vuracakmış? Şaşarım.
Kükremiş sel gibiyim, bendimi çiğner, aşarım,
Yırtarım dağları, enginlere sığmam, taşarım.

Garbın afakını sarmışsa çelik zırhlı duvar,
Benim iman dolu göğsüm gibi serhaddim var.
Ulusun, korkma! Nasıl böyle bir imanı boğar,
“Medeniyet” dediğin tek dişi kalmış canavar?

Arkadaş! Yurduma alçakları uğratma sakın,
Siper et gövdeni, dursun bu hayâsızca akın.
Doğacaktır sana vadettiği günler Hakk’ın,
Kim bilir, belki yarın belki yarından da yakın.

Bastığın yerleri “toprak” diyerek geçme, tanı,
Düşün altındaki binlerce kefensiz yatanı.
Sen şehit oğlusun, incitme, yazıktır atanı,
Verme, dünyaları alsan da bu cennet vatanı.

Kim bu cennet vatanın uğruna olmaz ki feda?
Şüheda fışkıracak, toprağı sıksan şüheda.
Canı, cananı, bütün varımı alsın da Hüda,
Etmesin tek vatanımdan beni dünyada cüda.

Ruhumun senden İlahî, şudur ancak emeli:
Değmesin mabedimin göğsüne namahrem eli.
Bu ezanlar, ki şehadetleri dinin temeli,
Ebedî, yurdumun üstünde benim inlemeli.

O zaman vecdile bin secde eder, varsa taşım,
Her cerihamdan, İlahî, boşanıp kanlı yaşım,
Fışkırır ruhumücerret gibi yerden naaşım,
O zaman yükselerek arşa değer belki başım.

Dalgalan sen de şafaklar gibi ey şanlı hilal!
Olsun artık dökülen kanlarımın hepsi helal.
Ebediyen sana yok, ırkıma yok izmihlal.
Hakkıdır, hür yaşamış bayrağımın hürriyet;
Hakkıdır, Hakk’a tapan milletimin istiklal.

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